Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2012
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]

3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Principles of Consolidation


The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Holdings and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Lixte. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Cash Concentrations


The Company’s cash balances may periodically exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced a loss in such accounts to date. The Company maintains its accounts with financial institutions with high credit ratings.


Research and Development


Research and development expenses consist primarily of fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, patent fees and costs, and other expenses relating to the acquisition, design, development and testing of the Company's treatments and product candidates.

                Research and development costs are expensed as incurred over the life of the underlying contracts on the straight-line basis, unless the achievement of milestones, the completion of contracted work, or other information indicates that a different expensing schedule is more appropriate. Payments made pursuant to research and development contracts are initially recorded as advances on research and development contract services in the Company’s balance sheet and then charged to research and development costs in the Company’s statement of operations as those contract services are performed. Expenses incurred under research and development contracts in excess of amounts advanced are recorded as research and development contract liabilities in the Company’s balance sheet, with a corresponding charge to research and development costs in the Company’s statement of operations. The Company reviews the status of its research and development contracts on a quarterly basis.


The funds paid to NINDS of the NIH, pursuant to the CRADA effective March 22, 2006, as amended, represented an advance on research and development costs and therefore had future economic benefit. Accordingly, such costs have been charged to expense when they are actually expended by the provider, which is, effectively, as they perform the research activities that they were contractually committed to provide. Absent information that would indicate that a different expensing schedule was more appropriate (such as, for example, from the achievement of performance milestones or the completion of contract work), such advances have been expensed over the contractual service term on a straight-line basis, which, in management’s opinion, reflects a reasonable estimate of when the underlying research and development costs were being incurred.


Patent Costs


Due to the significant uncertainty associated with the successful development of one or more commercially viable products based on the Company's research efforts and any related patent applications, all patent costs, including patent-related legal and filing fees, are expensed as incurred. Patent costs were $38,162 and $139,145 for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, and $1,210,775 for the period from August 9, 2005 (inception) to March 31, 2012 (cumulative). Patent costs are included in research and development costs in the Company's condensed consolidated statements of operations.


On August 16, 2011, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (the “PTO”) awarded a patent to the Company for its lead compound, LB-100, as well as for a number of structurally related compounds. On November 10, 2011, the PTO issued an Official Notice of Allowance in conjunction with the Company’s patent application for the structure and synthesis of its compounds of the LB-200 series. On November 15, 2011, the PTO awarded a patent to the Company for its lead compound in the LB-200 series and a compound in the LB-100 series as neuroprotective agents for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. On April 4, 2012, the Company announced receiving an Official Notice of Allowance from the PTO for its lead histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), LB-201 and other structural homologs. Patent applications on these compounds are pending world-wide.


Income Taxes 


The Company accounts for income taxes under an asset and liability approach for financial accounting and reporting for income taxes. Accordingly, the Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected impact of differences between the financial statements and the tax basis of assets and liabilities.


The Company has elected to deduct research and development costs on a current basis for federal income tax purposes. Start-up and organization costs were deferred until January 1, 2008. Accordingly, the Company then began to amortize such costs over a 180-month period.


The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In the event the Company was to determine that it would be able to realize its deferred tax assets in the future in excess of its recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be credited to operations in the period such determination was made. Likewise, should the Company determine that it would not be able to realize all or part of its deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be charged to operations in the period such determination was made.


For federal income tax purposes, net operating losses can be carried forward for a period of 20 years until they are either utilized or until they expire.


On January 1, 2007, the Company adopted accounting rules which address the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. Under these rules, the Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. These accounting rules also provide guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures. As of March 31, 2012, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be recorded.


The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and is subject to income tax examinations by federal tax authorities for the year 2008 and thereafter. The Company’s policy is to record interest and penalties on uncertain tax provisions as income tax expense. As of March 31, 2012, the Company has no accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions.


Government Grant Under Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project


Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act signed into law on March 23, 2010 (the “Act”), the Internal Revenue Service and the Department of Health and Human Services established the qualifying therapeutic discovery project to consider and award certifications for qualified investments by project sponsors. On July 20, 2010, the Company applied for a grant pursuant to the Act based upon qualified investments made in 2009 and 2010. On October 29, 2010, the Company was notified that qualified investments totaling $488,958 had been certified and that a grant in the amount of $244,479 had been awarded to the Company.


The proceeds of the grant were received by the Company in two installments, consisting of $127,994 on November 9, 2010, and $116,485 on February 1, 2011, which was reflected as a receivable at December 31, 2010. For financial statement purposes, the grant of $244,479 was offset against research and development costs in the statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2010.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company periodically issues stock options and warrants to officers, directors and consultants for services rendered. Options vest and expire according to terms established at the grant date.


The Company accounts for share-based payments to officers and directors by measuring the cost of services received in exchange for equity awards based on the grant date fair value of the awards, with the cost recognized as compensation expense in the Company’s financial statements over the vesting period of the awards.


The Company accounts for share-based payments to consultants by determining the value of the stock compensation based upon the measurement date at either (a) the date at which a performance commitment is reached or (b) at the date at which the necessary performance to earn the equity instruments is complete.


Options granted to Scientific Advisory Board committee members and outside consultants are revalued each reporting period to determine the amount to be recorded as an expense in the respective period. As the options vest, they are valued on each vesting date and an adjustment is recorded for the difference between the value already recorded and the then current value on the date of vesting.


Earnings Per Share 


The Company’s computation of earnings per share (“EPS”) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) available to common shareholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS is similar to basic EPS but presents the dilutive effect on a per share basis of potential common shares (e.g., warrants and options) as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, or issuance date, if later. Potential common shares that have an anti-dilutive effect (i.e., those that increase income per share or decrease loss per share) are excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS.


Loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the respective periods. Basic and diluted loss per common share is the same for all periods presented because all warrants and stock options outstanding are anti-dilutive.


At March 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company excluded the outstanding securities summarized below, which entitle the holders thereof to acquire shares of common stock, from its calculation of earnings per share, as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.


    2012     2011  
Warrants     13,454,552       13,607,426  
Stock options     3,150,000       3,540,000  
Total     16,604,552       17,147,426  


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


The carrying amounts of cash, money market funds, advances on research and development contract services, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses, research and development contract liabilities, liquidated damages payable under registration rights agreement and due to stockholder approximate their respective fair values due to the short-term nature of these items.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In May 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (the “ASU”) No. 2011-4, which amends the Fair Value Measurements Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification (the “ASC”) to help achieve common fair value measurement and disclosure requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRS.  ASU No. 2011-4 does not require additional fair value measurements and is not intended to establish valuation standards or affect valuation practices outside of financial reporting. The ASU was effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011. The Company adopted the ASU effective January 1, 2012. The ASU did not have any impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.


In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-5, which amends the Comprehensive Income Topic of the ASC. The ASU eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in shareholders’ equity, and instead requires consecutive presentation of the statement of net income and other comprehensive income either in a continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements.  ASU No. 2011-5 was effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011. The Company adopted the ASU effective January 1, 2012. The ASU did not have any impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.


Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, authoritative guidance, if currently adopted, would have a material impact on the Company’s financial statement presentation or disclosures.