Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and include the financial statements of Lixte Biotechnology Holdings, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Lixte Biotechnology, Inc. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company operates and reports in one segment, which focuses on the utilization of biomarker technology to identify enzyme targets associated with serious common diseases and then designing novel compounds to attack those targets. The Company’s operating segment is reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Chief Operating Decision Maker, which is the Company’s President, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Scientific Officer.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Some of those judgments can be subjective and complex, and therefore, actual results could differ materially from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable in relation to the financial statements taken, as a whole, under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Management regularly evaluates the key factors and assumptions used to develop the estimates utilizing currently available information, changes in facts and circumstances, historical experience, and reasonable assumptions. After such evaluations, if deemed appropriate, those estimates are adjusted accordingly. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include those related to assumptions used in the calculation of accruals for clinical trial costs and other potential liabilities, valuing equity instruments issued for services, and the realization of deferred tax assets.
Cash is held in a cash bank deposit program maintained by Morgan Stanley Wealth Management, a division of Morgan Stanley Smith Barney LLC (“Morgan Stanley”). Morgan Stanley is a FINRA-regulated broker-dealer. The Company’s policy is to maintain its cash balances with financial institutions with high credit ratings and in accounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and/or by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (the “SIPC”). The Company periodically has cash balances in financial institutions in excess of the FDIC and SIPC insurance limits of $250,000 and $500,000, respectively. Morgan Stanley Wealth Management also maintains supplemental insurance coverage for the cash balances of its customers. The Company has not experienced any losses to date resulting from this policy.
Research and Development
Research and development costs consist primarily of fees paid to consultants and contractors, and other expenses relating to the negotiation, design, development and management of clinical trials with respect to the Company’s clinical compound and product candidate. Research and development costs also include the costs to manufacture the compounds used in research and clinical trials, which are charged to operations as incurred. The Company’s inventory of LB-100 for clinical use has been manufactured separately in the United States and in the European Union in accordance with the laws and regulations of such jurisdictions.
Research and development costs are generally charged to operations ratably over the life of the underlying contracts, unless the achievement of milestones, the completion of contracted work, the termination of an agreement, or other information indicates that a different expensing schedule is more appropriate. However, payments for research and development costs that are contractually defined as non-refundable are charged to operations as incurred.
Obligations incurred with respect to mandatory scheduled payments under agreements with milestone provisions are recognized as charges to research and development costs in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations based on the achievement of such milestones, as specified in the respective agreement. Obligations incurred with respect to mandatory scheduled payments under agreements without milestone provisions are accounted for when due, are recognized ratably over the appropriate period, as specified in the respective agreement, and are recorded as liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet, with a corresponding charge to research and development costs in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations.
Payments made pursuant to contracts are initially recorded as advances on research and development contract services in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet and are then charged to research and development costs in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations as those contract services are performed. Expenses incurred under contracts in excess of amounts advanced are recorded as research and development contract liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet, with a corresponding charge to research and development costs in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations. The Company reviews the status of its various clinical trial and research and development contracts on a quarterly basis.
Prepaid insurance represents the premiums paid for directors and officers insurance coverage and for general liability insurance coverage in excess of the amortization of the total policy premium charged to operations at each balance sheet date. Such amount is determined by amortizing the total policy premium charged on a straight-line basis over the respective policy period. As the policy premiums incurred are generally amortizable over the ensuing twelve-month period, they are recorded as a current asset in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet at each reporting date and appropriately amortized to the Company’s consolidated statement of operations for each reporting period.
Patent and Licensing Legal and Filing Fees and Costs
Due to the significant uncertainty associated with the successful development of one or more commercially viable products based on the Company’s research efforts and related patent applications, all patent and licensing legal and filing fees and costs related to the development and protection of the Company’s intellectual property are charged to operations as incurred. Patent and licensing legal and filing fees and costs were $340,010 and $358,389 for the three months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and $657,350 and $673,626 for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Patent and licensing legal and filing fees and costs are included in general and administrative costs in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.
Concentration of Risk
The Company periodically contracts with vendors and consultants to provide services related to the Company’s operations. Charges incurred for these services can be for a specific time period (typically one year) or for a specific project or task. Costs and expenses incurred that represented 10% or more of general and administrative costs or research and development costs for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 are described as follows.
General and administrative costs for the three months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 included charges from legal firms and other vendors for general licensing and patent prosecution costs relating to the Company’s intellectual properties representing 27.3% and 25.9% of total general and administrative costs, respectively. General and administrative costs for the three months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 also included charges for the fair value of stock options granted to directors and corporate officers representing 22.5% and 30.7%, respectively, of total general and administrative costs.
Research and development costs for the three months ended June 30, 2023 included charges from two vendors and consultants representing 62.9% and 12.4%, respectively, of total research and development costs. Research and development costs for the three months ended June 30, 2022 include charges from five vendors and consultants representing 29.7%, 18.2%, 17.4%, 12.6%, and 10.2%, respectively, of total research and development costs.
General and administrative costs for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 include charges from legal firms and other vendors for general licensing and patent prosecution costs relating to the Company’s intellectual properties representing 27.1% and 26.1% of total general and administrative costs, respectively. General and administrative costs for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 also included charges for the fair value of stock options granted to directors and corporate officers representing 23.0% and 29.6%, respectively, of total general and administrative costs.
Research and development costs for the six months ended June 30, 2023 include charges from three vendors and consultants representing 43.9%, 17.1% and 11.2%, respectively, of total research and development costs. Research and development costs for the six months ended June 30, 2022 include charges from two vendors and consultants representing 44.6% and 16.5%, respectively, of total research and development costs.
The Company accounts for income taxes under an asset and liability approach for financial accounting and reporting for income taxes. Accordingly, the Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected impact of differences between the financial statements and the tax basis of assets and liabilities.
The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In the event the Company was to determine that it would be able to realize its deferred tax assets in the future in excess of its recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be credited to operations in the period such determination was made. Should the Company determine that it would not be able to realize all or part of its deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be charged to operations in the period such determination was made.
The Company is subject to U.S. federal income taxes and income taxes of various state tax jurisdictions. As the Company’s net operating losses have yet to be utilized, all previous tax years remain open to examination by Federal authorities and other jurisdictions in which the Company currently operates or has operated in the past. The Company had no unrecognized tax benefits as of June 30, 2023 or December 31, 2022 and does not anticipate any material amount of unrecognized tax benefits through December 31, 2023.
The Company accounts for uncertainties in income tax law under a comprehensive model for the financial statement recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in income tax returns as prescribed by GAAP. The tax effects of a position are recognized only if it is “more-likely-than-not” to be sustained by the taxing authority as of the reporting date. If the tax position is not considered “more-likely-than-not” to be sustained, then no benefits of the position are recognized. The Company had not recorded any liability for uncertain tax positions as of June 30, 2023 or December 31, 2022. Subsequent to June 30, 2023, any interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions will be recognized as a component of income tax expense.
The Company periodically issues common stock and stock options to officers, directors, employees, Scientific Advisory Committee members, contractors and consultants for services rendered. Options vest and expire according to terms established at the issuance date of each grant. Stock grants, which are generally time vested, are measured at the grant date fair value and charged to operations ratably over the vesting period.
The Company accounts for stock-based payments to officers, directors, employees, Scientific Advisory Committee members, contractors and consultants by measuring the cost of services received in exchange for equity awards utilizing the grant date fair value of the awards, with the cost recognized as compensation expense on the straight-line basis in the Company’s financial statements over the vesting period of the awards. Recognition of compensation expense for non-employees is in the same period and manner as if the Company had paid cash for the services.
The fair value of stock options granted as stock-based compensation is determined utilizing the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, and is affected by several variables, the most significant of which are the expected life of the stock option, the exercise price of the stock option as compared to the fair market value of the common stock on the grant date, and the estimated volatility of the common stock. Unless sufficient historical exercise data is available, the expected life of the stock option is calculated as the mid-point between the vesting period and the contractual term (the “simplified method”). The estimated volatility is based on the historical volatility of the Company’s common stock, calculated utilizing a look-back period approximately equal to the contractual life of the stock option being granted. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant. The fair market value of the common stock is determined by reference to the quoted market price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date. The expected dividend yield is based on the Company’s expectation of dividend payouts and is assumed to be zero.
The Company recognizes the fair value of stock-based compensation awards in general and administrative costs and in research and development costs, as appropriate, in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The Company issues new shares of common stock to satisfy stock option exercises.
The Company’s computation of earnings (loss) per share (“EPS”) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) attributable to common stockholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS is similar to basic EPS, but presents the dilutive effect on a per share basis of potential common shares (e.g., preferred shares, warrants and stock options) as if they had been converted at the beginning of the respective periods presented, or issuance date, if later. Potential common shares that have an anti-dilutive effect (i.e., those that increase income per share or decrease loss per share) are excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS.
Loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the respective periods. Basic and diluted loss per common share was the same for all periods presented because all preferred shares, warrants and stock options outstanding were anti-dilutive.
Schedule of Anti-dilutive Securities Excluded from Computation of Earnings Per Share
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The authoritative guidance with respect to fair value established a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three levels and requires that assets and liabilities carried at fair value be classified and disclosed in one of three categories, as presented below. Disclosure as to transfers in and out of Levels 1 and 2, and activity in Level 3 fair value measurements, is also required.
Level 1. Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for an identical asset or liability that the Company has the ability to access as of the measurement date. Financial assets and liabilities utilizing Level 1 inputs include active-exchange traded securities and exchange-based derivatives.
Level 2. Inputs, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, which are directly observable for the asset or liability or indirectly observable through corroboration with observable market data. Financial assets and liabilities utilizing Level 2 inputs include fixed income securities, non-exchange-based derivatives, mutual funds, and fair-value hedges.
Level 3. Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data for the asset or liability which requires the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions. Financial assets and liabilities utilizing Level 3 inputs include infrequently traded non-exchange-based derivatives and commingled investment funds and are measured using present value pricing models.
The Company determines the level in the fair value hierarchy within which each fair value measurement falls in its entirety, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. In determining the appropriate levels, the Company performs an analysis of the assets and liabilities at each reporting period end.
The carrying value of financial instruments (consisting of accounts payable and accrued expenses) is considered to be representative of their respective fair values due to the short-term nature of those instruments.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2021, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt — Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging — Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options (“ASU 2021-04”). ASU 2021-04 provides guidance as to how an issuer should account for a modification of the terms or conditions or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option (i.e., a warrant) that remains classified after modification or exchange as an exchange of the original instrument for a new instrument. An issuer should measure the effect of a modification or exchange as the difference between the fair value of the modified or exchanged warrant and the fair value of that warrant immediately before modification or exchange and then apply a recognition model that comprises four categories of transactions and the corresponding accounting treatment for each category (equity issuance, debt origination, debt modification, and modifications unrelated to equity issuance and debt origination or modification). ASU 2021-04 was effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. An entity should apply the guidance provided in ASU 2021-04 prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date. The Company adopted ASU 2021-04 effective January 1, 2022. The adoption of ASU 2021-04 did not have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statement presentation or related disclosures.
In July 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-03, Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205), Income Statement — Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Equity (Topic 505), and Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Presentation of Financial Statements (“ASU 2023-03”). ASU 2023-03 amends the FASB Accounting Standards Codification to include Amendments to SEC Paragraphs pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 120, SEC Staff Announcement at the March 24, 2022 EITF Meeting, and SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 6.B, Accounting Series Release 280 — General Revision of Regulation S-X: Income or Loss Applicable to Common Stock. As the ASU does not provide any new guidance, there is no transition or effective date associated with its adoption. Accordingly, the Company adopted ASU 2023-03 immediately upon its issuance. The adoption of ASU 2023-03 did not have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statement presentation or related disclosures.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, authoritative guidance, if currently adopted, would have a material impact on the Company’s financial statement presentation or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef