Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2012
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Holdings and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Lixte. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company’s cash balances may periodically exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced a loss in such accounts to date. The Company maintains its accounts with financial institutions with high credit ratings.
Research and Development
Research and development costs consist primarily of fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, patent fees and costs, and other expenses relating to the acquisition, design, development and testing of the Company's treatments and product candidates.
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred over the life of the underlying contracts on the straight-line basis, unless the achievement of milestones, the completion of contracted work, or other information indicates that a different expensing schedule is more appropriate. Payments made pursuant to research and development contracts are initially recorded as advances on research and development contract services in the Company’s balance sheet and then charged to research and development costs in the Company’s statement of operations as those contract services are performed. Expenses incurred under research and development contracts in excess of amounts advanced are recorded as research and development contract liabilities in the Company’s balance sheet, with a corresponding charge to research and development costs in the Company’s statement of operations. The Company reviews the status of its research and development contracts on a quarterly basis.
The funds paid to NINDS of the NIH, pursuant to the CRADA effective March 22, 2006, as amended, represented an advance on research and development costs and therefore had future economic benefit. Accordingly, such costs have been charged to expense when they are actually expended by the provider, which is, effectively, as they perform the research activities that they were contractually committed to provide. Absent information that would indicate that a different expensing schedule was more appropriate (such as, for example, from the achievement of performance milestones or the completion of contract work), such advances have been expensed over the contractual service term on a straight-line basis, which, in management’s opinion, reflects a reasonable estimate of when the underlying research and development costs were being incurred.
Due to the significant uncertainty associated with the successful development of one or more commercially viable products based on the Company's research efforts and any related patent applications, all patent costs, including patent-related legal and filing fees, are expensed as incurred. Patent costs were $88,810 and $95,126 for the three months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively, $126,972 and $234,271 for the six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively, and $1,299,585 for the period from August 9, 2005 (inception) to June 30, 2012 (cumulative). Patent costs are included in research and development costs in the Company's condensed consolidated statements of operations.
On August 16, 2011, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (the “PTO”) awarded a patent to the Company for its lead compound, LB-100, as well as for a number of structurally related compounds. On November 15, 2011, the PTO awarded a patent to the Company for a lead compound in the LB-200 series and a compound in the LB-100 series as neuroprotective agents for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. On March 27, 2012, the PTO awarded a patent to the Company for its lead compound, LB-201, as well as for a number of structurally related compounds. Patent applications on these compounds and their use are pending world-wide.
On December 19, 2011, an article in the December 12, 2011 early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States reported that the Company’s investigational drug, LB-205, was shown to have therapeutic potential in a laboratory model of the genetic illness Gaucher’s disease. Patent applications are pending on the use of LB-205 for this purpose.
Pursuant to a Patent License Agreement with the NIH that provides the Company with an exclusive license for all patents submitted jointly with the NIH under the CRADA, various categories of royalties at various rates and amounts are payable, including minimum annual royalties (subject to an offset for royalties from net sales), royalties on net sales, royalties based on the achievement of certain benchmarks, and royalties based on granting sublicense agreements, with respect to joint patents. Such royalties are accrued and paid when they become legal obligations, and are charged to general and administrative costs.
The Company accounts for income taxes under an asset and liability approach for financial accounting and reporting for income taxes. Accordingly, the Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected impact of differences between the financial statements and the tax basis of assets and liabilities.
The Company has elected to deduct research and development costs on a current basis for federal income tax purposes. Start-up and organization costs were deferred until January 1, 2008. Accordingly, the Company then began to amortize such costs over a 180-month period.
The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In the event the Company was to determine that it would be able to realize its deferred tax assets in the future in excess of its recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be credited to operations in the period such determination was made. Likewise, should the Company determine that it would not be able to realize all or part of its deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be charged to operations in the period such determination was made.
For federal income tax purposes, net operating losses can be carried forward for a period of 20 years until they are either utilized or until they expire.
On January 1, 2007, the Company adopted accounting rules which address the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. Under these rules, the Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. These accounting rules also provide guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures. As of June 30, 2012, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be recorded.
The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and is subject to income tax examinations by federal tax authorities for the year 2008 and thereafter. The Company’s policy is to record interest and penalties on uncertain tax provisions as income tax expense. As of June 30, 2012, the Company has no accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions.
Government Grant Under Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Project
Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act signed into law on March 23, 2010 (the “Act”), the Internal Revenue Service and the Department of Health and Human Services established the qualifying therapeutic discovery project to consider and award certifications for qualified investments by project sponsors. On July 20, 2010, the Company applied for a grant pursuant to the Act based upon qualified investments made in 2009 and 2010. On October 29, 2010, the Company was notified that qualified investments totaling $488,958 had been certified and that a grant in the amount of $244,479 had been awarded to the Company.
The proceeds of the grant were received by the Company in two installments, consisting of $127,994 on November 9, 2010, and $116,485 on February 1, 2011, which was reflected as a receivable at December 31, 2010. For financial statement purposes, the grant of $244,479 was offset against research and development costs in the statement of operations during the year ended December 31, 2010.
The Company periodically issues stock options and warrants to officers, directors and consultants for services rendered. Options vest and expire according to terms established at the grant date.
The Company accounts for stock-based payments to officers and directors by measuring the cost of services received in exchange for equity awards based on the grant date fair value of the awards, with the cost recognized as compensation expense in the Company’s financial statements over the vesting period of the awards.
The Company accounts for stock-based payments to consultants by determining the value of the stock compensation based upon the measurement date at either (a) the date at which a performance commitment is reached or (b) at the date at which the necessary performance to earn the equity instruments is complete.
Options granted to Scientific Advisory Board committee members and outside consultants are revalued each reporting period to determine the amount to be recorded as an expense in the respective period. As the options vest, they are valued on each vesting date and an adjustment is recorded for the difference between the value already recorded and the then current value on the date of vesting.
Earnings Per Share
The Company’s computation of earnings per share (“EPS”) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) available to common shareholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS is similar to basic EPS but presents the dilutive effect on a per share basis of potential common shares (e.g., warrants and options) as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, or issuance date, if later. Potential common shares that have an anti-dilutive effect (i.e., those that increase income per share or decrease loss per share) are excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS.
Loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the respective periods. Basic and diluted loss per common share is the same for all periods presented because all warrants and stock options outstanding are anti-dilutive.
At June 30, 2012 and 2011, the Company excluded the outstanding securities summarized below, which entitle the holders thereof to acquire shares of common stock, from its calculation of earnings per share, as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of cash, money market funds, advances on research and development contract services, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses, research and development contract liabilities, liquidated damages payable under registration rights agreement and due to stockholder approximate their respective fair values due to the short-term nature of these items.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2011-04, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRSs. This guidance was issued to achieve common fair value measurement and disclosure requirements between GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards. This new guidance amends current fair value measurement and disclosure guidance to include increased transparency around valuation inputs and investment categorization. The Company adopted the ASU effective January 1, 2012. The adoption of this new guidance did not have any impact on the Company’s fair value measurements or consolidated financial statements.
In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-05, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income. This guidance requires companies to present the components of net income and other comprehensive income either as one continuous statement or as two consecutive statements. It eliminates the option to present components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders' equity. The guidance does not change the items which must be reported in other comprehensive income, how such items are measured or when they must be reclassified to net income. In addition, in December 2011, the FASB issued an amendment which defers the requirement to present components of reclassifications of other comprehensive income on the face of the income statement. The Company adopted the ASU effective January 1, 2012. Because this guidance impacts presentation only, it did not have any impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In September 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-08, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Testing Goodwill for Impairment. This guidance simplifies how entities test goodwill for impairment and permits an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2012. The adoption of this new guidance did not have any impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, authoritative guidance, if currently adopted, would have a material impact on the Company’s financial statement presentation or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef