Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration Statement No. 333-252430

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus Dated February 5, 2021)

 

LIXTE BIOTECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS, INC.

1,133,102 Shares of Common Stock

 

We are offering up to 1,133,102 shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, directly to certain institutional investors pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Each share of our common stock is being sold at a purchase price of $3.70 per share.

 

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “LIXT”. On February 25, 2021, the last reported sale price as reported on The Nasdaq Capital Market was $3.77 per share.

 

As of February 25, 2021, the aggregate market value of our outstanding shares of common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $12,577,428 and was based on 12,374,302 outstanding shares of common stock, of which approximately 3,327,362 shares of common stock were held by non-affiliates, and a per share price of $3.78 per share, which was the closing sale price of our common stock on February 24, 2021. During the 12-calendar month period that ends on, and includes, the date of this prospectus supplement (but excluding this offering), we have not offered or sold any of our securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

   Per Share   Total 
Offering price  $3.70   $4,192,478 
Placement Agent’s fees (1)  $0.2867   $324,917 
Proceeds, before expenses, to us (2)  $3.4133   $3,867,561 

 

(1) We have agreed to reimburse our placement agents (the “Placement Agents”) for certain of their offering-related expenses, including a non-allowable expense allowance of 1.73% of the gross proceeds raised in this offering, together with legal fees for placement agents’ counsel not to exceed $75,000. In addition, we have agreed to issue to the Placement Agents warrants (the “Placement Agents’ Warrants”) to purchase up to a number of shares of our common stock equal to 10.0% of the number of shares of common stock being offered at an exercise price equal to 100% of the offering price of the shares of common stock. See “Plan of Distribution” for additional information and a description of the compensation payable to the Placement Agents.
   
(2) We estimate the total expenses of this offering payable by us, excluding the Placement Agents’ fees and related offering expenses, will be approximately $30,000.

 

We engaged WestPark Capital, Inc. and WallachBeth Capital, LLC as our exclusive Placement Agents to use their reasonable best efforts to solicit offers to purchase the shares of common stock in this offering. The Placement Agents have no obligation to buy any of the securities from us or to arrange for the purchase or sale of any specific number or dollar amount of the securities.

 

We anticipate that delivery of the shares of common stock will be made on or about March 2, 2021, subject to satisfaction of customary closing conditions.

 

WestPark Capital, Inc.   WallachBeth Capital, LLC

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is February 26, 2021.

 

   
   

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

  Page
About This Prospectus Supplement S-1
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements S-2
Prospectus Supplement Summary S-3
The Offering S-7
Risk Factors S-8
Dilution S-43
Use of Proceeds S-44
Description of Our Common Stock S-45
Plan of Distribution S-46
Legal Matters S-48
Experts S-48
Where You Can Find More Information S-48
Incorporation of Documents By Reference S-49

 

Prospectus

 

  Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 1
RISK FACTORS 5
THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER 6
USE OF PROCEEDS 7
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 7
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 10
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 18
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 21
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES 21
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 24
LEGAL MATTERS 26
EXPERTS 26
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 26
INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 26

 

You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

This prospectus supplement and any later prospectus supplement is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

 

You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement and in any other prospectus supplement is accurate only as of their respective dates and that any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or any other prospective supplement for any sale of securities.

 

 S-i 
   

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to the sale of shares of our common stock registered for sale under our Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-252430) (the “Registration Statement”), which the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission” or the “SEC”) declared effective on February 5, 2021. This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this common stock offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference therein filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

Neither we nor the Placement Agents have authorized anyone to provide information different from that contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in this offering. When you make a decision about whether to invest in our common stock, you should not rely upon any information other than the information in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, including any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in this offering. Neither the delivery of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, including any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in this offering, nor the sale of our common stock means that information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in this offering, is correct after their respective dates. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement.

 

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

 

 S-1 
   

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein may contain forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including statements regarding future events, our future financial performance, business strategy, and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. We have attempted to identify forward-looking statements by terminology including “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “should,” or “will” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Although we do not make forward looking statements unless we believe we have a reasonable basis for doing so, we cannot guarantee their accuracy. These statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including the risks outlined under “Risk Factors” or elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, which may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a highly regulated, very competitive, and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risk factors, nor can we address the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short term and long-term business operations, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed (i) in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, (ii) in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and in particular, the risks discussed below and under the heading “Risk Factors” and (iii) those discussed in other documents we file with the SEC. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 and notes incorporated by reference herein. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statement.

 

You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement, each of which applies only as of the date of this prospectus supplement. You are advised to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our reports on Forms 10-Q, 8-K and 10-K filed with the SEC.

 

 S-2 
   

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our shares of common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, including the information contained under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering.

 

Throughout this prospectus supplement, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” and “our company” refer to Lixte Biotechnology Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries unless the context requires otherwise.

 

Company Overview

 

We are a drug discovery company that uses biomarker technology to identify enzyme targets associated with serious common diseases and then designs novel compounds to attack those targets. Our product pipeline is primarily focused on inhibitors of protein phosphatases, used alone and in combination with cytotoxic agents and/or x-ray and immune checkpoint blockers, and encompasses two major categories of compounds at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development that we believe have broad therapeutic potential not only for cancer but also for other debilitating and life-threatening diseases.

 

We have developed two series of pharmacologically active drugs, the LB-100 series and the LB-200 series. We believe that the mechanism by which compounds of the LB-100 series affect cancer cell growth is different from cancer agents currently approved for clinical use. Lead compounds from each series have activity against a broad spectrum of common and rarer human cancers in cell culture systems. In addition, compounds from both series have anti-cancer activity in animal models of glioblastoma multiforme, neuroblastoma, and medulloblastoma, all cancers of neural tissue. Lead compounds of the LB-100 series also have activity against melanoma, breast cancer and sarcoma in animal models and enhance the effectiveness of commonly used anti-cancer drugs in these model systems. The enhancement of anti-cancer activity of these anti-cancer drugs occurs at doses of LB-100 that do not significantly increase toxicity in animals. It is therefore hoped that, when combined with standard anti-cancer regimens against many tumor types, our compounds will improve therapeutic benefit without enhancing toxicity in humans.

 

Our activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including the need for additional capital, as described below. We have not yet commenced any revenue-generating operations, do not have positive cash flows from operations, and are dependent on periodic infusions of equity capital to fund our operating requirements.

 

Product Candidates

 

The LB-100 series consists of novel structures which have the potential to be first in their class and may be useful in the treatment of not only several types of cancer but also vascular and metabolic diseases. The LB-200 series contains compounds which have the potential to be the most effective in its class and may be useful for the treatment of chronic hereditary diseases, such as Gaucher’s disease, in addition to cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

 

We have demonstrated that lead compounds of both the LB-100 series and the LB-200 are active against a broad spectrum of human cancers in cell culture and against several types of human cancers in animal models. The research on these compounds was initiated in 2006 under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, or CRADA, with the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, or NINDS, of the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, dated March 22, 2006 that was subsequently extended through a series of amendments until it terminated on April 1, 2013. As discussed below, our primary focus is on the clinical development of LB-100.

 

 S-3 
   

 

The LB-200 series consists of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). Many pharmaceutical companies are also developing drugs of this type, and at least two companies have HDACi approved for clinical use, in both cases for the treatment of a type of lymphoma. Despite this significant competition, we have demonstrated that our HDACi have broad activity against many cancer types, have neuroprotective activity, and have anti-fungal activity. In addition, these compounds have low toxicity. LB-200 has not yet advanced to the clinical stage and would require additional capital to fund further development. Accordingly, because of our focus on the clinical development of LB-100 and analogs for cancer therapy as described below in more detail, we have decided not to actively pursue the pre-clinical development of our LB-200 series of compounds at this time. At this time, we intend to only maintain composition of matter patents for LB-200.

 

Collaborations with leading academic research centers in the United States, Europe and Asia have established the breadth of activity of LB-100 in pre-clinical models of several major cancers. There is considerable scientific interest in LB-100 because it exerts its activity by a novel mechanism and is the first of its type to be evaluated so broadly in multiple animal models of cancer and now in human beings. LB-100 is one of a series of serine/threonine phosphatase (s/t ptase) inhibitors designed by us. The s/t ptases are ubiquitous enzymes that regulate many cell signaling networks important to cell growth, division and death. The s/t ptases have long been appreciated as potentially important targets for anti-cancer drugs. However, because of the multi- functionality of these enzymes, it had been widely held that pharmacologic inhibitors of s/t ptases would be too toxic to allow their development as anti-cancer treatments, but we have shown that this is not the case. LB-100 was well tolerated at doses associated with objective regression (significant tumor shrinkage) and/or the arresting of tumor progression in patients with progressive cancers.

 

Pre-clinical studies showed that LB-100 itself inhibits a spectrum of human cancers and that combined with standard cytotoxic drugs and/or radiation, LB-100 potentiates their effectiveness against hematologic and solid tumor cancers without enhancing toxicity. Given at very low doses in animal models of cancer, LB-100 markedly increased the effectiveness of a PD-1 blocker, one of the widely used new immunotherapy drugs. This finding raises the possibility that LB-100 may further expand the value of the expanding field of cancer immunotherapy.

 

We completed a Phase 1 clinical trial of LB-100 to evaluate its safety that showed it is associated with antitumor activity in humans at doses that are readily tolerable. Responses included objective regression (tumor shrinkage) lasting for 11 months of a pancreatic cancer and cessation of growth (stabilization of disease) for 4 months or more of 9 other progressive solid tumors out of 20 patients who had measurable disease. As Phase 1 clinical trials are fundamentally designed to determine safety of a new compound in humans, we were encouraged by these results. The next step is to demonstrate in Phase 2 clinical trials the efficacy of LB-100 in one or more specific tumor types, against which the compound has well documented activity in pre-clinical models.

 

Current Studies

 

Moffitt. Effective August 20, 2018, we entered into a Clinical Trial Research Agreement with the Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute Hospital Inc., Tampa, Florida, effective for a term of five years, unless terminated earlier by us pursuant to 30 days written notice. Pursuant to the Clinical Trial Research Agreement, Moffitt agreed to conduct and manage a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of our lead anti-cancer clinical compound LB-100 to be administered intravenously in patients with low or intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

 

In November 2018, we received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or “FDA” for our Investigational New Drug or “IND” Application to conduct a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of LB-100 in patients with low and intermediate-1 risk MDS who have failed or are intolerant of standard treatment. Patients with MDS, although usually older, are generally well except for severe anemia requiring frequent blood transfusions. This Phase 1b/2 clinical trial utilizes LB-100 as a single agent in the treatment of patients with low and intermediate-1 risk MDS, including patients with del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (del5qMDS) failing first line therapy. The bone marrow cells of patients with del5qMDS are deficient in PP2A by virtue of an acquired mutation and are especially vulnerable to further inhibition of PP2A by LB-100. The clinical trial began at a single site in April 2019 and the first patient was entered into the clinical trial in July 2019. A total enrollment of 41 patients is planned.

 

 S-4 
   

 

GEIS. As of July 31, 2019, we entered into a Collaboration Agreement for an Investigator-Initiated Clinical Trial with the Spanish Sarcoma Group (Grupo Español de Investigación en Sarcomas or “GEIS”), Madrid, Spain, to carry out a clinical trial to obtain information about the efficacy and safety of LB-100 combined with doxorubicin in soft tissue sarcomas. Doxorubicin is the global standard for initial treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcomas (“ASTS”). Doxorubicin alone has been the mainstay of first line treatment of ASTS for over 40 years, with little therapeutic gain from adding cytotoxic compounds to or substituting other cytotoxic compounds for doxorubicin. In animal models, LB-100 consistently enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin without apparent increases in toxicity.

 

NCI. During the fourth quarter of 2019, the National Cancer Institute, or NCI, enrolled the first two patients of a planned eight patient pharmacologic study of the ability of LB-100 to enter the brain and penetrate recurrent brain tumors in patients where surgical removal of the cancers is indicated (clinical trials registry NCT03027388). This study is being conducted and funded by the NCI under a CRADA with us; additional information will be reported by us as it is provided by the NCI.

 

City of Hope. Effective January 18, 2021, we entered into, a Clinical Trials Agreement with the City of Hope to carry out a Phase 1b clinical trial of LB-100, combined with a standard regimen for untreated, extensive stage-disease small cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC). LB-100 will be given in combination with carboplatin, etoposide and Atelolizumab, an FDA approved but marginally effective regimen, to previously untreated ED-SCLC patients. The dose of LB-100 will be escalated with fixed doses of the 3-drug regimen to reach a recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D).

 

Risks Associated with Our Business

 

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware of before making an investment decision. Some of these risks include the following:

 

  We have incurred substantial losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial and increasing losses for the foreseeable future.
     
  We will require substantial additional financing to achieve our goals, and a failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.
     
  We currently have no source of revenues. We may never generate revenues or achieve profitability.
     
  We expect to continue to incur significant operating and non-operating expenses, which may make it difficult for us to secure sufficient financing and may lead to uncertainty about our ability to continue as a going concern.
     
  We are dependent in part on technologies we license, and if we lose the right to license such technologies or we fail to license new technologies in the future, our ability to develop new products would be harmed, and if we fail to meet our obligations under our current or future license agreements, we may lose the ability to develop our product candidate.
     
  We expect to face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
     
  We are currently a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a product candidate in clinical development. If we are unable to successfully develop and commercialize our product candidate or experience significant delays in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.

 

 S-5 
   

 

  Our success relies on third-party suppliers and manufacturers. Any failure by such third parties, including, but not limited to, failure to successfully perform and comply with regulatory requirements, could negatively impact our business and our ability to develop and market our product candidate, and our business could be substantially harmed.
     
  Our future success is dependent on the regulatory approval of our product candidate.
     
  Our business may be adversely affected by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.
     
  Business interruptions could adversely affect future operations, revenues, and financial conditions, and may increase our cost of expenses.
     
  Our failure to find third party collaborators to assist or share in the costs of product development could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
     
  If we fail to comply with our obligations under our license agreement with licensors, we could lose rights that are important to our business.
     
  We may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may prevent or delay our product development efforts.
     
  Our intellectual property may not be sufficient to protect our products from competition.

 

Recent Developments

 

On November 25, 2020, we consummated a public offering (the “Public Offering”) of 1,200,000 Units, each Unit consisting of one share of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and one warrant (each a “Warrant”) at a price of $4.75 per Unit. The Public Offering resulted in gross proceeds of approximately $5.7 million before deducting the placement agent’s fees and related offering expenses.

 

On January 18, 2021, we entered into, a Clinical Trials Agreement with the City of Hope to carry out a Phase 1b clinical trial of LB-100, combined with a standard regimen for untreated, extensive stage-disease small cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC). The clinical trial will assess the combination of our first-in-class protein phosphatase inhibitor LB-100 with a standard regimen for untreated, extensive stage-disease small cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC).

 

Available Information

 

Our principal place of business is located at 248 Route 25A, No. 2, East Setauket, New York 11733. Our telephone number is (631) 830-7092. Our corporate website address is www.lixte.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

 

Our common stock and warrants trade on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “LIXT” and “LIXTW”, respectively.

 

Our principal Internet address is www.lixte.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website, is not, and shall not be deemed to be, incorporated in this prospectus supplement or considered a part thereof. We make available free of charge on www.lixte.com our annual, quarterly and current reports, and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.

 

 S-6 
   

 

THE OFFERING

 

Common stock outstanding prior to this offering   12,374,302 shares.
     
Common stock offered   1,133,102 shares.
     
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering   13,507,404 shares.
     
Use of proceeds   We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for working capital and general corporate expenses, including for further development of our lead compound LB-100. See “Use of Proceeds.”
     
Risk factors   See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement, as well as other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, for a discussion of factors you should read and consider carefully before investing in our securities.
     
Nasdaq Capital Market symbols  

Our common stock and warrants are listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “LIXT” and “LIXTW”, respectively.

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering as shown above is based on 12,374,302 shares of common stock outstanding as of February 25, 2021 and excludes as of that date:

 

  729,167 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of 350,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock outstanding at a conversion rate of 2.083 common shares per preferred share, reflecting an effective conversion price of $4.800 per common share.
     
  1,508,333 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding common stock options issued to members of management, consultants, and directors at a weighted average exercise price of $4.11 per common share.
     
  1,500,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding common stock warrants at an average exercise price of $6.00 per common share.
     
  2,133,333 shares of common stock reserved for future grants pursuant to our 2020 Stock Incentive Plan.
     
  120,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants issued to the underwriters as part of the public offering in November 2020 at an exercise price of $5.70 per common share (120% of the public offering price of $4.75 per share).
     
  1,200,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants issued in our public offering in November 2020, which have an exercise price of $5.70 per share and expire on November 30, 2025, and 180,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants issued in our public offering in December 2020, which have an exercise price of $5.70 per share and expire on December 7, 2025.
     
 

113,310 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of the Placement Agents’ Warrants to be issued as compensation to the Placement Agents for this offering, with an exercise price of $3.70 per share.

 

  200,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding common stock options issued to non - officer directors on January 6, 2021 at an exercise price of $3.21 per share.

 

 S-7 
   

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our shares of common stock involves a high degree of risk and uncertainty. You should carefully consider these risk factors, together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as modified and superseded, before you decide to invest in our securities, including without limitation the risk factors listed under Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors of our Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC. The occurrence of any of the following risks could harm our business. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our operations. You should also refer to the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our financial statements and the notes to those statements and the information set forth in the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Risks Relating to Our Financial Position and Capital Needs

 

We are engaged in early stage research and as such may not be successful in our efforts to develop a portfolio of commercially viable products.

 

A key element of our strategy is to discover, develop and commercialize a portfolio of new drugs. We are seeking to do so through our internal research programs. A significant portion of the research that we are conducting involves new and unproven technologies. Research programs to identify new disease targets and product candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources whether or not any candidates or technologies are ultimately identified. Our research programs may initially show promise in identifying potential product candidates, yet fail to yield product candidates for clinical development for the following reasons:

 

  the research methodology used may not be successful in identifying potential product candidates; however, we have identified two promising lead candidate compounds which have activity in animal models, one of which, LB-100, has completed a Phase 1 clinical trial; or
     
  product candidates for drugs may on further study be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate they are unlikely to be effective drugs.

 

If we are unable to discover suitable potential product candidates, develop additional delivery technologies through internal research programs or in-license suitable products or delivery technologies on acceptable business terms, our business prospects will suffer.

 

We have incurred substantial losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial and increasing losses for the foreseeable future.

 

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company that uses biomarker technology to identify enzyme targets associated with serious common diseases and then designs novel compounds to attack those threats. We do not have any products approved by regulatory authorities and have not generated any revenues from collaboration and licensing agreements or product sales to date, and have incurred significant research, development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations and expect to continue to incur such expenses. As a result, we have not been profitable and have incurred significant operating losses since our inception. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we reported a net loss of $2,357,955 and $2,118,272, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we reported a net loss of $2,440,343 and $2,133,128, respectively. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $29,446,841 and $27,088,886, respectively.

 

 S-8 
   

 

We do not expect to generate revenues for many years, if at all. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future. We anticipate these losses to increase as we continue to research, develop and seek regulatory approvals for our product candidate and any additional product candidates we may acquire, and potentially begin to commercialize product candidates that may achieve regulatory approval. We may also encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may adversely affect our business. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenues. Our expenses will further increase as we:

 

  conduct clinical trials of our lead product candidate, LB-100;
     
  in-license or acquire the rights to, and pursue development of, other products, product candidates or technologies;
     
  hire additional clinical, manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and scientific personnel;
     
  seek marketing approval for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
     
  develop our outsourced manufacturing and commercial activities and establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, if we receive, or expect to receive, marketing approval for any product candidates;
     
  maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio; and
     
  add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel.

 

We need significant additional financing to fund our operations and complete the development and, if approved, the commercialization of our product candidate. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development programs or commercialization efforts.

 

We expect that our existing cash resources as of September 30, 2020, together with the proceeds from this offering, will provide sufficient working capital resources to fund our clinical trial program with respect to the development of our lead anti-cancer clinical compound LB-100 for approximately the next two years from the date of this offering; however, our existing cash resources will not be sufficient to complete development of and obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate, and we will need to raise significant additional capital to help us do so. In addition, our operating plan may change as a result of many factors currently unknown to us, and we may need additional funds sooner than planned.

 

We expect to expend substantial resources for the foreseeable future to continue the clinical development and manufacturing of our product candidate and the advancement and expansion of our preclinical research pipeline. These expenditures will include costs associated with research and development, potentially acquiring new product candidates or technologies, conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials and potentially obtaining regulatory approvals and manufacturing products, as well as marketing and selling products approved for sale, if any.

 

 S-9 
   

 

Budgets and future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

 

  the scope, progress, results and costs of our ongoing and planned development programs for our product candidate, as well as any additional clinical trials we undertake to obtain data sufficient to seek marketing approval for our product candidate;
     
  the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining regulatory approvals for our product candidate if our clinical trials are successful;
     
  the cost of commercialization activities for our product candidate, if our product candidate is approved for sale, including marketing, sales and distribution costs;
     
  the cost of manufacturing our product candidate for clinical trials in preparation for regulatory approval, including the cost and timing of process development, manufacturing scale-up and validation activities;

 

  our ability to establish and maintain strategic licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of such agreements;
     
  the costs to in-license future product candidates or technologies;
     
  the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, expanding, defending and enforcing patent claims, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation;
     
  the costs in defending and resolving future derivative and securities class action litigation;
     
  our operating expenses; and
     
  the emergence of competing technologies or other adverse market developments.

 

Additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. We have no committed source of additional capital. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may not be able to continue as a going concern or we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate preclinical studies, clinical trials or other development activities for our product candidate or target indications, or delay, limit, reduce or terminate our establishment of sales and marketing capabilities or other activities that may be necessary to commercialize our product candidate.

 

We currently have no source of revenues. We may never generate revenues or achieve profitability.

 

Currently, we do not generate any revenues from product sales or otherwise. Even if we are able to successfully achieve regulatory approval for our product candidate, we do not know when we will generate revenues or become profitable, if at all. Our ability to generate revenues from product sales and achieve profitability will depend on our ability to successfully commercialize products, including our primary product candidate, LB-100, and any other product candidates that we may develop, in-license or acquire in the future. Our ability to generate revenues and achieve profitability also depends on a number of additional factors, including our ability to:

 

  successfully complete development activities, including the necessary clinical trials;
     
  complete and submit New Drug Applications, or NDAs, to the FDA and obtain U.S. regulatory approval for indications for which there is a commercial market;
     
  complete and submit applications to foreign regulatory authorities;
     
  obtain regulatory approval in territories with viable market sizes;
     
  obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement from third parties, including government and private payors;
     
  set commercially viable prices for our product, if any;

 

 S-10 
   

 

  establish and maintain supply and manufacturing relationships with reliable third parties and/or build our own manufacturing facility and ensure adequate, legally globally compliant manufacturing of bulk drug substances and drug products to maintain that supply;
     
  develop distribution processes for our product candidate;
     
  develop commercial quantities of our product candidate, once approved, at acceptable cost levels; obtain additional funding, if required to develop and commercialize our product candidate;
     
  develop a commercial organization capable of sales, marketing and distribution for any products we intend to sell ourselves, in the markets in which we choose to commercialize on our own;
     
  achieve market acceptance of our product;
     
  attract, hire and retain qualified personnel; and
     
  protect our rights in our intellectual property portfolio.

 

Our revenues for any product candidate for which regulatory approval is obtained will be dependent, in part, upon the size of the markets in the territories for which it gains regulatory approval, the accepted price for the product, the ability to get reimbursement at any price, and whether we own the commercial rights for that territory. If the number of our addressable disease patients is not as significant as our estimates, the indication approved by regulatory authorities is narrower than we expect, or the reasonably accepted population for treatment is narrowed by competition, physician choice or treatment guidelines, we may not generate significant revenues from sales of such products, even if approved. In addition, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved product candidate. As a result, even if we generate revenues, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and may be forced to reduce our operations.

 

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

 

H.R. 1, “An Act to provide for reconciliation pursuant to title II and V of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2018,” informally entitled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Act”) enacted on December 22, 2017, among other things, contains significant changes to corporate taxation, including reduction of the corporate tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a single rate of 21%, limitation of the tax deduction for interest expense to 30% of adjusted taxable income (except for certain small businesses), limitation of the deduction for net operating losses carried forward from taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 to 80% of current year taxable income and elimination of net operating loss carrybacks, one time taxation of offshore earnings at reduced rates regardless of whether they are repatriated, elimination of U.S. tax on foreign earnings (subject to certain important exceptions), providing immediate deductions for certain new investments instead of deductions for depreciation expense over time, and modifying or repealing many business deductions and credits (including reduction of tax credits under the Orphan Drug Act). Notwithstanding the reduction in the corporate income tax rate, the overall impact of the Tax Act is uncertain and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, it is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act.

 

Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to limitations.

 

As of December 31, 2019, we had federal net operating loss, or NOLs, carryforwards of approximately $17,088,000. Our NOLs generated in tax years ending on or prior to December 31, 2017 are only permitted to be carried forward for 20 years under applicable U.S. tax laws, and will begin to expire, if not utilized, beginning in 2027. These NOL carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. Under the Tax Act, federal NOLs incurred in tax years ending after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such federal NOLs is limited. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act, or whether any further regulatory changes may be adopted in the future that could minimize its applicability. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and certain corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in the ownership of its equity over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOL carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income may be limited.

 

 S-11 
   

 

Risks Related to the Development and Regulatory Approval of Our Product Candidate

 

Clinical-stage biopharmaceutical companies with product candidates in clinical development face a wide range of challenging activities which may entail substantial risk.

 

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a product candidate in clinical development. The success of our product candidate will depend on several factors, including the following:

 

  designing, conducting and successfully completing preclinical development activities, including preclinical efficacy and IND-enabling studies, for our product candidate or product candidates we may, in the future, in-license or acquire;
     
  designing, conducting and completing clinical trials for our product candidate with positive results;
     
   receipt of regulatory approvals from applicable authorities;
     
  obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidate;
     
  making arrangements with third-party manufacturers, receiving regulatory approval of our manufacturing processes and our third-party manufacturers’ facilities from applicable regulatory authorities and ensuring adequate supply of drug product;
     
  manufacturing our product candidate at an acceptable cost;
     
  effectively launching commercial sales of our product candidate, if approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
     
  achieving acceptance of our product candidate, if approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
     
  effectively competing with other therapies;
     
  if our product candidate is approved, obtaining and maintaining coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors, including government payors, for our product candidate;
     
  complying with all applicable regulatory requirements, including FDA current Good Clinical Practices (“GCP”), current Good Manufacturing Practices (“cGMP”), and standards, rules and regulations governing promotional and other marketing activities;
     
  maintaining a continued acceptable safety profile of the product during development and following approval.

 

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully develop and commercialize our product candidate, which could materially harm our business.

 

 S-12 
   

 

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials which could delay or prevent the start of clinical trials for our product candidate.

 

Identifying and qualifying patients to participate in clinical trials of our product candidate is essential to our success. The timing of our clinical trials depends in part on the rate at which we can recruit patients to participate in clinical trials of our product candidate, and we may experience delays in our clinical trials if we encounter difficulties in enrollment. If we experience delays in our clinical trials, the timeline for obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidate will most likely be delayed.

 

Many factors may affect our ability to identify, enroll and maintain qualified patients, including the following:

 

  eligibility criteria of our ongoing and planned clinical trials with specific characteristics appropriate for inclusion in our clinical trials;
     
  design of the clinical trial;
     
  size and nature of the patient population;
     
  patients’ perceptions as to risks and benefits of the product candidate under study and the participation in a clinical trial generally in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;
     
  the availability and efficacy of competing therapies and clinical trials;
     
  pendency of other trials underway in the same patient population;
     
  willingness of physicians to participate in our planned clinical trials;
     
  severity of the disease under investigation;
     
  proximity of patients to clinical sites;
     
  patients who do not complete the trials for personal reasons; and
     
  issues with CROs and/or with other vendors that handle our clinical trials.

 

We may not be able to initiate or continue to support clinical trials of LB-100, our product candidate, for one or more indications, or any future product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible participants in these trials as required by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Even if we are able to enroll a sufficient number of patients in our clinical trials, if the pace of enrollment is slower than we expect, the development costs for our product candidate may increase and the completion of our trials may be delayed or our trials could become too expensive to complete.

 

If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trials of our product candidate, the commercial prospects of our product candidate could be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenue from any of our product candidate could be delayed or prevented. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials would likely increase our overall costs, impair product candidate development and jeopardize our ability to obtain regulatory approval relative to our current plans. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition, and prospects significantly.

 

 S-13 
   

 

The results of preclinical studies or earlier clinical trials are not necessarily predictive of future results. Our existing product candidate in clinical trials, and any other product candidates that may advance into clinical trials, may not have favorable results in later clinical trials or receive regulatory approval.

 

Success in preclinical studies and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will generate adequate data to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of an investigational drug. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, including those with greater resources and experience than us, have suffered significant setbacks in clinical trials, even after seeing promising results in earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials.

 

Despite the results reported in earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials for our product candidate, we do not know whether the clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate adequate efficacy and safety to result in regulatory approval to market our product candidate for a particular indication, in any particular jurisdiction. Efficacy data from prospectively designed trials may differ significantly from those obtained from retrospective subgroup analyses. If later-stage clinical trials do not produce favorable results, our ability to achieve regulatory approval for our product candidate may be adversely impacted. Even if we believe that we have adequate data to support an application for regulatory approval to market our current product candidate or any future product candidates, the FDA or other regulatory authorities may not agree and may require that we conduct additional clinical trials.

 

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome.

 

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, with the outcome inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. Before obtaining approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidate, we must conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidate in humans. Prior to initiating clinical trials, a sponsor must complete extensive preclinical testing of a product candidate, including, in most cases, preclinical efficacy experiments as well as IND-enabling toxicology studies. These experiments and studies may be time-consuming and expensive to complete. The necessary preclinical testing may not be completed successfully for a preclinical product candidate and a potentially promising product candidate may therefore never be tested in humans. Once it commences, clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their products. We may experience numerous unforeseen events during drug development that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our product candidate. In particular, clinical trials of our product candidate may produce inconclusive or negative results. We have limited data regarding the safety, tolerability and efficacy of our product candidate. Clinical trials also require the review and oversight of an institutional review board (“IRB”). An inability or delay in obtaining IRB approval could prevent or delay the initiation and completion of clinical trials, and the FDA may decide not to consider any data or information derived from a clinical investigation not subject to initial and continuing IRB review and approval.

 

We may experience delays in our ongoing or future clinical trials, and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin or enroll subjects on time, will need to be redesigned or will be completed on schedule, if at all. There can be no assurance that the FDA will not put clinical trials of our product candidate on hold in the future. Clinical trials may be delayed, suspended or prematurely terminated for a variety of reasons, such as:

 

  delay or failure in reaching agreement with the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority on a clinical trial design that we are able to execute;
     
  delay or failure in obtaining authorization to commence a trial or inability to comply with conditions imposed by a regulatory authority regarding the scope or design of a trial;
     
  delay or failure in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

 

 S-14 
   

 

  delay or failure in obtaining IRB approval or the approval of other reviewing entities, including comparable foreign regulatory authorities, to conduct a clinical trial at each site;
     
  withdrawal of clinical trial sites from our clinical trials or the ineligibility of a site to participate in our clinical trials;
     
  delay or failure in recruiting and enrolling suitable subjects to participate in a trial;
     
  delay or failure in subjects completing a trial or returning for post-treatment follow-up;
     
  clinical sites and investigators deviating from trial protocol, failing to conduct the trial in accordance with regulatory requirements, or dropping out of a trial;
     
  inability to identify and maintain a sufficient number of trial sites, many of which may already be engaged in other clinical trial programs, including some that may be for the same indication;
     
  failure of our third-party clinical trial managers, CROs, clinical trial sites, contracted laboratories or other third-party vendors to satisfy their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or return trustworthy data;
     
  delay or failure in adding new trial sites;
     
  interim results or data that are ambiguous or negative or are inconsistent with earlier results or data;
     
  alteration of trial design necessitated by re-evaluation of design assumptions based upon observed data;
     
  feedback from the FDA, the IRB or a comparable foreign regulatory authority, or results from earlier stage or concurrent preclinical studies and clinical trials, that might require modification to the protocol for a trial;
     
  a decision by the FDA, the IRB, a comparable foreign regulatory authority, or us to suspend or terminate clinical trials at any time for safety issues or for any other reason;
     
  unacceptable risk-benefit profile, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects;
     
  failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a product candidate;
     
  difficulties in manufacturing or obtaining from third parties sufficient quantities of a product candidate to start or to use in clinical trials;
     
  lack of adequate funding to continue a trial, including the incurrence of unforeseen costs due to enrollment delays, requirements to conduct additional studies or increased expenses associated with the services of our CROs and other third parties; or
     
  changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue a clinical trial.

 

If we experience delays in the completion or termination of any clinical trial of our product candidate, the approval and commercial prospects of our product candidate will be harmed, delaying our ability to generate product revenues from such product candidate and our costs will most likely increase. The required regulatory approvals may also be delayed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues and the period of commercial exclusivity for our product may be decreased. Regulatory approval of our product candidate may be denied for the same reasons that caused the delay.

 

 S-15 
   

 

Risks associated with operating in foreign countries could materially adversely affect our product development.

 

We may conduct future studies in countries outside of the U.S. Consequently, we may be subject to risks related to operating in foreign countries. Risks associated with conducting operations in foreign countries include:

 

  differing regulatory requirements for drug approvals and regulation of approved drugs in foreign countries; more stringent privacy requirements for data to be supplied to our operations in the U.S., e.g., General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union;
     
  unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements; economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets; compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad; foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;
     
  differing payor reimbursement regimes, governmental payors or patient self-pay systems and price controls;
     
  foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses or reduced revenues, and other obligations incident to doing business or operating in another country;
     
  workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the U.S.;
     
  production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad; and
     
  business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions, including war and terrorism.

 

Our current and future product candidates, the methods used to deliver them or their dosage levels may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label or result in significant negative consequences following any regulatory approval.

 

Undesirable side effects caused by our current or future product candidates, their delivery methods or dosage levels could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval or termination of clinical trials by the FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities; or an IRB, that approves and, monitors biomedical research to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects. As a result of safety or toxicity issues that we may experience in our clinical trials, or negative or inconclusive results from the clinical trials of others for drug candidates similar to our own, we may not receive approval to market our current product candidate or any product candidates we may pursue, which could prevent us from ever generating revenues or achieving profitability. Results of our trials could reveal an unacceptably high severity and incidence of side effects. In such an event, our trials could be suspended or terminated, and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of or deny approval of our current or any future product candidates for any or all targeted indications. The drug-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and future prospects.

 

Additionally, if our product candidate receives regulatory approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such product, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including that:

 

  we may be forced to suspend marketing of such product;
     
  regulatory authorities may withdraw their approvals of such product;

 

 S-16 
   

 

  regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label that could diminish the usage or otherwise limit the commercial success of such product;
     
  we may be required to conduct post-marketing studies;
     
  we may be required to change the way the product is administered;
     
  we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to subjects or patients; and
     
  our reputation may suffer.

 

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of our product candidate, if approved.

 

Our product development program may not uncover all possible adverse events that patients who take our product candidate may experience. The number of subjects exposed to our product candidate and the average exposure time in the clinical development program may be inadequate to detect rare adverse events or chance findings that may only be detected once the product is administered to more patients and for greater periods of time.

 

Clinical trials by their nature utilize a sample of the potential patient population. However, with a limited number of subjects and limited duration of exposure, we cannot be fully assured that rare and severe side effects of our product candidate will be uncovered. Such rare and severe side effects may only be uncovered with a significantly larger number of patients exposed to our product candidate. If such safety problems occur or are identified after our product candidate reaches the market, the FDA may require that we amend the labeling of the product or recall the product, or may even withdraw approval for the product.

 

Our future success is dependent on the regulatory approval of our product candidate.

 

Our business is dependent on our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate in a timely manner. We cannot commercialize our product candidate in the U.S. without first obtaining regulatory approval for the product from the FDA. Similarly, we cannot commercialize our product candidate outside of the U.S. without obtaining regulatory approval from comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of our product candidate for a target indication, we must demonstrate with substantial evidence gathered in preclinical studies and clinical trials, that the product candidate is safe and effective for use for that target indication and that the manufacturing facilities, processes and controls are adequate with respect to such product candidate.

 

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of preclinical studies and clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions.

 

Even if a product candidate were to successfully obtain approval from the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, any approval might contain significant limitations related to use restrictions for specified age groups, warnings, precautions or contraindications, or may be subject to burdensome post-approval study or risk management requirements. Also, any regulatory approval of our current product candidate or any future product candidates we may pursue, once obtained, may be withdrawn.

 

 S-17 
   

 

Our current product candidate and future product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval from the FDA.

 

We have not obtained regulatory approval for our product candidate and it is possible that our existing product candidate or any future product candidates will not obtain regulatory approval, for many reasons, including:

 

  disagreement with the regulatory authorities regarding the scope, design or implementation of our clinical trials;
     
  failure to demonstrate that a product candidate is safe and effective for our proposed indication;
     
  failure of clinical trials to meet the level of statistical significance required for approval;
     
  failure to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;
     
  disagreement with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
     
  the insufficiency of data collected from clinical trials of our product candidate to support the submission and filing of an NDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval;
     
  failure to obtain approval of our manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with whom we contract for clinical and commercial supplies or our own manufacturing facility; or
     
  changes in the approval policies or regulations that render our preclinical and clinical data insufficient for approval.

 

The FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority may require more information, including additional preclinical or clinical data to support approval or additional studies, which may delay or prevent approval and our commercialization plans, or we may decide to abandon the development program. If we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve our current product candidate and any future product candidates we may pursue for fewer or more limited indications than we request (including failing to approve the most commercially promising indications), may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate.

 

If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate in one or more jurisdictions, or any approval contains significant limitations, we may not be able to obtain sufficient funding to continue the development of that product or generate revenues attributable to that product candidate.

 

Failure to obtain regulatory approval in international jurisdictions would prevent our product candidate from being marketed abroad.

 

In addition to regulations in the U.S., to market and sell our product candidate in the European Union, United Kingdom, many Asian countries and other jurisdictions, we must obtain separate regulatory approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the U.S. does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. The regulatory approval process outside the U.S. generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval as well as risks attributable to the satisfaction of local regulations in foreign jurisdictions. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA approval. We may not be able to obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the U.S. on a timely basis, if at all. Clinical trials accepted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries. In addition, many countries outside the U.S. require that a product be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country. A product candidate that has been approved for sale in a particular country may not receive reimbursement approval in that country.

 

 S-18 
   

 

We may not be able to file for regulatory approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our product in any market. If we are unable to obtain approval of any of our current product candidate or any future product candidates we may pursue by regulatory authorities in the European Union, United Kingdom, Asia or elsewhere, the commercial prospects of that product candidate may be significantly diminished, our business prospects could decline and this could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Even if our current primary product candidate received regulatory approval, it may still face future development and regulatory difficulties.

 

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for our primary product candidate, LB-100, that approval would be subject to ongoing requirements by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities governing the manufacture, quality control, further development, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, adverse event reporting, safety surveillance, import, export, advertising, promotion, recordkeeping and reporting of safety and other post-marketing information. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as continued compliance by us and/or our CMOs and CROs for any post-approval clinical trials that we may conduct. The safety profile of any product will continue to be closely monitored by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities after approval. If the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities become aware of new safety information after approval of our product candidate, they may require labeling changes or establishment of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, impose significant restrictions on such product’s indicated uses or marketing or impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly post-approval studies or post-market surveillance.

 

In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP, GCP, and other regulations. If we or a regulatory agency discover previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product, the manufacturing facility or us, including requiring recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing. If we, our product candidate or the manufacturing facilities for our product candidate fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency may:

 

  issue warning letters or untitled letters;
     
   mandate modifications to promotional materials or require us to provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners;
     
  require us to enter into a consent decree, which can include imposition of various fines, reimbursements for inspection costs, required due dates for specific actions and penalties for noncompliance;
     
  seek an injunction or impose civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;
     
  suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;
     
  suspend any ongoing clinical trials;
     
  refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to applications filed by us;
     
  suspend or impose restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements; or
     
  seize or detain products, refuse to permit the import or export of products, or require us to initiate a product recall.

 

 S-19 
   

 

The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to successfully commercialize our product and generate revenues.

 

Advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval in the U.S. is heavily scrutinized by the FDA, the Department of Justice, the Office of Inspector General of Health and Human Services, state attorneys general, members of Congress and the public. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy, purity and potency that are approved by the FDA and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. Additionally, advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval outside of the U.S. is heavily scrutinized by comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Violations, including actual or alleged promotion of our product for unapproved or off-label uses, are subject to enforcement letters, inquiries and investigations, and civil and criminal sanctions by the FDA, as well as prosecution under the federal False Claims Act. Any actual or alleged failure to comply with labeling and promotion requirements may have a negative impact on our business.

 

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

 

We depend on certain key scientific personnel for our success who do not work full time for us. The loss of any such personnel could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our success depends on the continued availability and contributions of our founder and Chief Executive Officer, Dr. John S. Kovach. Dr. Kovach is 83 years old and is being treated for recurrent asymptomatic prostate cancer. The loss of services of Dr. Kovach could delay or reduce our product development and commercialization efforts and would require that we hire a qualified replacement to fill the position of the Chief Executive Officer. Furthermore, recruiting and retaining qualified scientific personnel to perform future research and development work will be critical to our success. The loss of members of our scientific personnel, or our inability to attract or retain other qualified personnel or advisors, could significantly weaken our management, harm our ability to compete effectively and harm our business. The competition for qualified personnel in the pharmaceutical field is intense and, as a result, we may be unable to attract and retain qualified personnel necessary for the development of our business.

 

During September 2015, we entered into a Collaboration Agreement with BioPharmaWorks, pursuant to which we engaged BioPharmaWorks to perform certain services for us. Those services include, among other things: (a) assisting us to (i) commercialize our products and strengthen our patent portfolio, (ii) identify large pharmaceutical companies with potential interest in our product pipeline, and (iii) prepare and deliver presentations concerning our products; (b) at the request of the Board of Directors, serving as backup management for up to three months should our Chief Executive Officer and scientific leader be temporarily unable to carry out his duties; (c) being available for consultation in drug discovery and development; and (d) identifying providers and overseeing tasks relating to clinical use and commercialization of new compounds. BioPharmaWorks was founded in 2015 by former Pfizer scientists with extensive multi-disciplinary research and development and drug development experience. The Collaboration Agreement automatically renews annually unless either party elects to terminate it. Services under this Collaboration Agreement have been periodically suspended and resumed; effective March 1, 2019, we and BioPharmaWorks agreed to resume services under this Collaboration Agreement, and the Collaboration Agreement is currently in effect.

 

Additionally, we have recently hired Dr. James S. Miser as Chief Medical Officer. For the foreseeable future, Dr. Miser will be working with us on a half-time basis. We believe that this Collaboration Agreement with BioPharmaWorks and the hiring of Dr. Miser mitigate, to a certain extent, our reliance on the services of Dr. Kovach, and would allow us the time to replace Dr. Kovach in the event that such a need arose.

 

We expect to rely heavily on third parties for the conduct of clinical trials of our product candidates. If these clinical trials are not successful, or if we or our collaborators are not able to obtain the necessary regulatory approvals, we will not be able to commercialize our product candidates.

 

In order to obtain regulatory approval for the commercial sale of our product candidates, we and our collaborators will be required to complete extensive preclinical studies as well as clinical trials in humans to demonstrate to the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities that our product candidates are safe and effective.

 

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Dr. Kovach is experienced in the design and conduct of early clinical cancer trials, having been the lead investigator for a National Cancer Institute Phase 1 clinical trial contract for ten years at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. However, we have no experience in conducting clinical trials and expects to rely heavily on collaborative partners and contract research organizations for their performance and management of clinical trials of our product candidates.

 

Our products under development may not be effective in treating any of our targeted disorders or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may prevent or limit their commercial use. Institutional review boards or regulators, including the FDA, may hold, suspend or terminate our clinical research or the clinical trials of our product candidates for various reasons, including non-compliance with regulatory requirements or if, in their opinion, the participating subjects are being exposed to unacceptable health risks. Additionally, the failure of third parties conducting or overseeing the operation of the clinical trials to perform their contractual or regulatory obligations in a timely fashion could delay the clinical trials. Failure of clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. Any of these events would adversely affect our ability to market a product candidate.

 

The development process necessary to obtain regulatory approval is lengthy, complex and costly. If we and our collaborative partners do not obtain necessary regulatory approvals at each stage of development, then our business would not be successful, and the market price of our common stock could decline substantially.

 

To the extent that we, or our collaborative partners, are able to successfully advance a product candidate through the clinic, we, or such partner, will be required to obtain regulatory approval prior to marketing and selling such product. The process of obtaining FDA and other required regulatory approvals is costly and lengthy. The time required for FDA and other approvals is uncertain and can typically take a number of years, depending on the complexity and novelty of the product.

 

Any regulatory approval to market a product may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which we, or our collaborative partners, may market the product. These limitations may restrict the size of the market for the product and affect reimbursement by third-party payors. In addition, regulatory agencies may not grant approvals on a timely basis or may revoke or significantly modify previously granted approvals.

 

We, or our collaborative partners, also are subject to numerous foreign regulatory requirements governing the manufacturing and marketing of our potential future products outside of the United States. The approval procedure varies among countries, additional testing may be required in some jurisdictions, and the time required to obtain foreign approvals often differs from that required to obtain FDA approvals. Moreover, approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and vice versa.

 

As a result of these factors, we, or our collaborative partners, may not successfully complete clinical trials in the time periods estimated, if at all. Moreover, if we, or our collaborative partners, incur unanticipated costs and/or delays in development programs or if we fail to successfully develop and commercialize products based upon our technologies, we may not be able to generate significant operating revenues and sustainable profitability, as a result of which our stock price could decline substantially.

 

Business interruptions could adversely affect future operations, revenues, and financial conditions, and may increase our costs and expenses.

 

Our operations, and those of our directors, advisors, contractors, consultants, CROs, and collaborators, could be adversely affected by earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, extreme weather conditions, fires, water shortages, power failures, business systems failures, medical epidemics and other natural and man-made disaster or business interruptions. Our phones, electronic devices and computer systems and those of our directors, advisors, contractors, consultants, CROs, and collaborators are vulnerable to damages, theft and accidental loss, negligence, unauthorized access, terrorism, war, electronic and telecommunications failures, and other natural and man-made disasters. Operating as a virtual company, our employees conduct business outside of our headquarters and leased or owned facilities. These locations may be subject to additional security and other risk factors due to the limited control of our employees. If such an event as described above were to occur in the future, it may cause interruptions in our operations, delay research and development programs, clinical trials, regulatory activities, manufacturing and quality assurance activities, sales and marketing activities, hiring, training of employees and persons within associated third parties, and other business activities. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data.

 

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Likewise, we will rely on third parties to manufacture our product candidates and conduct clinical trials, and similar events as those described in the prior paragraph relating to their business systems, equipment and facilities could also have a material adverse effect on our business. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our product candidate could be delayed or altogether terminated.

 

Our failure to find third party collaborators to assist or share in the costs of product development could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our strategy for the development and commercialization of our proprietary product candidates may include the formation of collaborative arrangements with third parties. We have entered into a number of agreements with third parties as described below under “Business,” including a clinical trial research agreement with Moffitt Cancer Center, a collaboration agreement with the Spanish Sarcoma Group, a cooperative research and development agreement with the National Cancer Institute, an agreement with Theradex Systems, Inc., a patent assignment and exploitation agreement with Inserm Transfert, SA, a consulting agreement with Liberi Life Sciences Consultancy BV, an exclusive license agreement with Moffitt, a material cooperative research and development agreement with the National Institutes of Health, a collaboration agreement with BioPharmaWorks and a consulting agreement with NDA Consulting Corp. Existing and future collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources they apply and may not perform their obligations as expected. Potential third-party collaborators include biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions and other entities. Third-party collaborators may assist us in:

 

  funding research, preclinical development, clinical trials and manufacturing;
     
  seeking and obtaining regulatory approvals; and
     
  successfully commercializing any future product candidates.

 

If we are not able to establish further collaboration agreements, we may be required to undertake product development and commercialization at our own expense. Such an undertaking may limit the number of product candidates that we will be able to develop, significantly increase our capital requirements and place additional strain on our internal resources. Our failure to enter into additional collaborations could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition, our dependence on licensing, collaboration and other agreements with third parties may subject us to a number of risks. These agreements may not be on terms that prove favorable to us and may require us to relinquish certain rights in our product candidates. To the extent we agree to work exclusively with one collaborator in a given area, our opportunities to collaborate with other entities could be curtailed. Lengthy negotiations with potential new collaborators may lead to delays in the research, development or commercialization of product candidates. The decision by our collaborators to pursue alternative technologies or the failure of our collaborators to develop or commercialize successfully any product candidate to which they have obtained rights from us could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

 

We cannot be certain we will be able to obtain patent protection to protect our product candidates and technology.

 

We cannot be certain that all patents applied for will be issued. If a third party has also filed a patent application relating to an invention claimed by us or one or more of our licensors, we may be required to participate in an interference or derivation proceeding declared or instituted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office, which could result in substantial uncertainties and cost for us, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us. The degree of future protection for our proprietary rights is uncertain. For example:

 

  we or our licensors might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by our pending or future patent applications;
     
  we or our licensors might not have been the first to file patent applications for these inventions;
     
  others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies;
     
  it is possible that our patent applications will not result in an issued patent or patents, or that the scope of protection granted by any patents arising from our patent applications will be significantly narrower than expected;
     
  any patents under which we hold ultimate rights may not provide us with a basis for commercially-viable products, may not provide us with any competitive advantages or may be challenged by third parties as not infringed, invalid, or unenforceable under United States or foreign laws;
     
  any patent issued to us in the future or under which we hold rights may not be valid or enforceable; or
     
  we may develop additional proprietary technologies that are not patentable and which may not be adequately protected through trade secrets; for example, if a competitor independently develops duplicative, similar, or alternative technologies.

 

If we do not obtain patent term extension in the United States under the Hatch-Waxman Act and in foreign countries under similar legislation, thereby potentially extending the term of our marketing exclusivity for any product candidates we may develop, our business may be materially harmed.

 

In the United States, the patent term of a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may be eligible for limited patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, also known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under clinical development and regulatory review. Patent term extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, and only one patent that is applicable to and covers an approved drug may be extended. Similar provisions are available in Europe, such as supplementary protection certificates, and in certain other non-United States jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. While, in the future, if and when our product candidates receive FDA approval, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on patents covering those product candidates, there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and even if granted, the length of such extensions. We may not be granted patent term extension either in the United States or in any foreign country because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the length of a patent term extension, as well as the scope of patent protection during any such extension, afforded by the governmental authority could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain any patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following the expiration of our patent rights, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially harmed.

 

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It is possible that we will not obtain patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act for a U.S. patent covering any of our product candidates that we may identify even where that patent is eligible for patent term extension, or if we obtain such an extension, it may be for a shorter period than we had sought.

 

If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we may license intellectual property rights from third parties or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose rights that are important to our business.

 

We have entered and may be required to enter into intellectual property license agreements that are important to our business. These license agreements may impose various diligence, milestone payment, royalty and other obligations on us. For example, we may enter into exclusive license agreements with various third parties (for example, universities and research institutions), we may be required to use commercially reasonable efforts to engage in various development and commercialization activities with respect to licensed products, and may need to satisfy specified milestone and royalty payment obligations. If we fail to comply with any obligations under our agreements with any of these licensors, we may be subject to termination of the license agreement in whole or in part; increased financial obligations to our licensors or loss of exclusivity in a particular field or territory, in which case our ability to develop or commercialize products covered by the license agreement will be impaired.

 

In addition, disputes may arise regarding intellectual property subject to a license agreement, including:

 

  the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;
     
  the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;
     
  our diligence obligations under the license agreement and what activities satisfy those obligations;
     
  if a third-party expresses interest in an area under a license that we are not pursuing, under the terms of certain of our license agreements, we may be required to sublicense rights in that area to a third party, and that sublicense could harm our business; and
     
  the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us.

 

If disputes over intellectual property that we have licensed prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully develop and commercialize the affected product candidates.

 

We may need to obtain licenses from third parties to advance our research or allow commercialization of our product candidates. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates, which could harm our business significantly.

 

We may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may prevent or delay our product development efforts and stop us from commercializing or increase the costs of commercializing our product candidates.

 

Our success will depend in part on our ability to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. We cannot guarantee that our products or product candidates, or manufacture or use of our products or product candidates, will not infringe third-party patents. Furthermore, a third party may claim that we are using inventions covered by the third party’s patent rights and may go to court to stop us from engaging in our normal operations and activities, including making or selling our product candidates. These lawsuits are costly and could affect our results of operations and divert the attention of managerial and scientific personnel. Some of these third parties may be better capitalized and have more resources than us. There is a risk that a court would decide that we are infringing the third party’s patents and would order us to stop the activities covered by the patents. In that event, we may not have a viable way around the patent and may need to halt commercialization of the relevant product candidate. In addition, there is a risk that a court will order us to pay the other party damages for having violated the other party’s patents. In addition, we may be obligated to indemnify our licensors and collaborators against certain intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties, which could require us to expend additional resources. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have produced a proliferation of patents, and it is not always clear to industry participants, including us, which patents cover various types of products or methods of use. The coverage of patents is subject to interpretation by the courts, and the interpretation is not always uniform.

 

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If we are sued for patent infringement, we would need to demonstrate that our products or products or methods either do not infringe the patent claims of the relevant patent or that the patent claims are invalid or unenforceable, and we may not be able to do this. Proving invalidity is difficult. For example, in the United States, proving invalidity requires a showing of clear and convincing evidence to overcome the presumption of validity enjoyed by issued patents. Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and divert management’s time and attention in pursuing these proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on us. If we are unable to avoid infringing the patent rights of others, we may be required to seek a license, which may not be available, and then we will have to defend an infringement action or challenge the validity of the patents in court. Patent litigation is costly and time consuming. We may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion. In addition, if we do not obtain a license, develop or obtain non-infringing technology, fail to defend an infringement action successfully or have infringed patents declared invalid or unenforceable, we may incur substantial monetary damages, encounter significant delays in bringing our product candidates to market and be precluded from manufacturing or selling our product candidates.

 

We cannot be certain that others have not filed patent applications for technology covered by our pending applications, or that we were the first to invent the technology, because:

 

  some patent applications in the United States may be maintained in secrecy until the patents are issued;
     
  patent applications in the United States are typically not published until 18 months after the priority date; and
     
  publications in the scientific literature often lag behind actual discoveries.

 

Our competitors may have filed, and may in the future file, patent applications covering technology similar to ours. Any such patent application may have priority over our patent applications, which could further require us to obtain rights to issued patents covering such technologies. If another party has filed US patent applications on inventions similar to ours that claims priority to any applications filed prior to the priority dates of our applications, we may have to participate in an interference proceeding declared or a derivation proceed instituted by the USPTO to determine priority of invention in the United States. The costs of these proceedings could be substantial, and it is possible that such efforts would be unsuccessful if, unbeknownst to us, the other party had independently arrived at the same or similar inventions prior to our own inventions, resulting in a loss of our U.S. patent position with respect to such inventions. Other countries have similar laws that permit secrecy of patent applications, and thus the third party’s patent or patent application may be entitled to priority over our applications in such jurisdictions.

 

Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our operations.

 

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We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets.

 

As is common in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, we employ, and may employ in the future, individuals who were previously employed at other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and independent contractors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we could lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could adversely impact our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

 

Our intellectual property may not be sufficient to protect our products from competition, which may negatively affect our business as well as limit our partnership or acquisition appeal.

 

We may be subject to competition despite the existence of intellectual property we license or own. We can give no assurances that our intellectual property claims will be sufficient to prevent third parties from designing around patents we own or license and developing and commercializing competitive products. The existence of competitive products that avoid our intellectual property could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, limitations, or perceived limitations, in our intellectual property may limit the interest of third parties to partner, collaborate or otherwise transact with us, if third parties perceive a higher than acceptable risk to commercialization of our products or future products.

 

Our approach involves the filing of patent applications covering new methods of use and/or new formulations of previously known, studied and/or marketed drugs. Although the protection afforded by our patent applications may be significant, when looking at our patents’ ability to block competition, the protection offered by our patents may be, to some extent, more limited than the protection provided by patents claiming the composition of matter of entirely new chemical structures previously unknown. If a competitor were able to successfully design around any method of use and formulation patents we may have in the future, our business and competitive advantage could be significantly affected.

 

We may elect to sue a third party, or otherwise make a claim, alleging infringement or other violation of patents, trademarks, trade dress, copyrights, trade secrets, domain names or other intellectual property rights that we either own or license. If we do not prevail in enforcing our intellectual property rights in this type of litigation, we may be subject to:

 

  paying monetary damages related to the legal expenses of the third party;
     
  facing additional competition that may have a significant adverse effect on our product pricing, market share, business operations, financial condition, and the commercial viability of our products; and
     
  restructuring our company or delaying or terminating select business opportunities, including, but not limited to, research and development, clinical trials, and commercialization activities, due to a potential deterioration of our financial condition or market competitiveness.

 

A third party may also challenge the validity, enforceability or scope of the intellectual property rights that we license or own; and, the result of these challenges may narrow the scope or claims of or invalidate patents that are integral to our product candidates in the future. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully defend patents we own in an action against third parties due to the unpredictability of litigation and the high costs associated with intellectual property litigation, amongst other factors.

 

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The laws of some jurisdictions do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws or rules and regulations in the United States and Europe, and many companies have encountered significant difficulties in protecting and defending such rights in such jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property protection, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in other jurisdictions, whether or not successful, could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license. Furthermore, while we intend to protect our intellectual property rights in our expected significant markets, we cannot ensure that we will be able to initiate or maintain similar efforts in all jurisdictions in which we may wish to market our products or product candidates. Accordingly, our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights in such countries may be inadequate, which may have an adverse effect on our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates in all of our expected significant foreign markets. If we or our licensors encounter difficulties in protecting, or are otherwise precluded from effectively protecting, the intellectual property rights important for our business in such jurisdictions, the value of these rights may be diminished, and we may face additional competition from others in those jurisdictions.

 

Changes to patent law, for example the Leahy-Smith America Invests Act, AIA or Leahy-Smith Act, of 2011 and the Patent Reform Act of 2009 and other future article of legislation in the U.S., may substantially change the regulations and procedures surrounding patent applications, issuance of patents, prosecution of patents, challenges to patent validity, and patent enforcement. We can give no assurances that our patents and those of our licensor(s) can be defended or will protect us against future intellectual property challenges, particularly as they pertain to changes in patent law and future patent law interpretations.

 

In addition, enforcing and maintaining our intellectual property protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and courts, and foreign government patent agencies and courts, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

 

If we are not able to protect and control our unpatented trade secrets, know-how and other technological innovation, we may suffer competitive harm.

 

We also rely on proprietary trade secrets and unpatented know-how to protect our research and development activities, particularly when we do not believe that patent protection is appropriate or available. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We will attempt to protect our trade secrets and unpatented know-how by requiring our employees, consultants, collaborators, and advisors to execute a confidentiality and non-use agreement. We cannot guarantee that these agreements will provide meaningful protection, that these agreements will not be breached, that we will have an adequate remedy for any such breach, or that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or independently developed by a third party. Our trade secrets, and those of our present or future collaborators that we utilize by agreement, may become known or may be independently discovered by others, which could adversely affect the competitive position of our product candidates.

 

We may incur substantial costs enforcing our patents, defending against third-party patents, invalidating third-party patents or licensing third-party intellectual property, as a result of litigation or other proceedings relating to patent and other intellectual property rights.

 

We may be unaware of or unfamiliar with prior art and/or interpretations of prior art that could potentially impact the validity or scope of our patents or pending patent applications, or patent applications that we will file. We may have elected, or elect now or in the future, not to maintain or pursue intellectual property rights that, at some point in time, may be considered relevant to or enforceable against a competitor.

 

We take efforts and enter into agreements with employees, consultants, collaborators, and advisors to confirm ownership and chain of title in intellectual property rights. However, an inventorship or ownership dispute could arise that may permit one or more third parties to practice or enforce our intellectual property rights, including possible efforts to enforce rights against us.

 

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We may not have rights under some patents or patent applications that may cover technologies that we use in our research, drug targets that we select, product candidates and particular uses thereof that we seek to develop and commercialize, as well as synthesis of our product candidates. Third parties may own or control these patents and patent applications in the United States and elsewhere. These third parties could bring claims against us or our collaborators that would cause us to incur substantial expenses and, if successful against us, could cause us to pay substantial damages. Further, if a patent infringement suit were brought against us or our collaborators, we or they could be forced to stop or delay research, development, manufacturing or sales of the product or product candidate that is the subject of the suit. We or our collaborators therefore may choose to seek, or be required to seek, a license from the third-party and would most likely be required to pay license fees or royalties or both. These licenses may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Even if we or our collaborators were able to obtain a license, the rights may be nonexclusive, which would give our competitors access to the same intellectual property. Ultimately, we could be prevented from commercializing a product or product candidate, or forced to cease some aspect of our business operations, as a result of patent infringement claims, which could harm our business.

 

There has been substantial litigation and other legal proceedings regarding patent and other intellectual property rights in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Although we are not currently a party to any patent litigation or any other adversarial proceeding, including any interference or derivation proceeding declared or instituted before the United States Patent and Trademark Office, regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our products, product candidates and technology, it is possible that we may become so in the future. We are not currently aware of any actual or potential third-party infringement claim involving our product candidates. The cost to us of any patent litigation or other proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial. The outcome of patent litigation is subject to uncertainties that cannot be adequately quantified in advance, including the demeanor and credibility of witnesses and the identity of the adverse party, especially in pharmaceutical and biotechnology related patent cases that may turn on the testimony of experts as to technical facts upon which experts may reasonably disagree. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their substantially greater financial resources. If a patent or other proceeding is resolved against us, we may be enjoined from researching, developing, manufacturing or commercializing our products or product candidates without a license from the other party and we may be held liable for significant damages. We may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially acceptable terms or at all.

 

Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could harm our ability to compete in the marketplace. Patent litigation and other proceedings may also absorb significant management time.

 

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our competitors may develop and market products with similar features that may reduce demand for our potential products.

 

The following factors are important to our success:

 

  receiving patent protection for our product candidates;
     
  preventing others from infringing our intellectual property rights; and
     
  maintaining our patent rights and trade secrets.

 

We will be able to protect our intellectual property rights in patents and trade secrets from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that such intellectual property rights are covered by valid and enforceable patents or are effectively maintained as trade secrets.

 

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Because issues of patentability involve complex legal and factual questions, the issuance, scope and enforceability of patents cannot be predicted with certainty. Patents may be challenged, invalidated, found unenforceable, or circumvented. United States patents and patent applications may be subject to interference and derivation proceedings, United States patents may also be subject to post grant proceedings, including re-examination, derivation, Inter Partes Review and Post Grant Review, in the United States Patent and Trademark Office and foreign patents may be subject to opposition or comparable proceedings in corresponding foreign patent offices, which could result in either loss of the patent or denial of the patent application or loss or reduction in the scope of one or more of the claims of the patent or patent application. In addition, such interference, derivation, post grant and opposition proceedings may be costly. Thus, any patents that we own or license from others may not provide any protection against competitors. Furthermore, an adverse decision in an interference or derivation proceeding can result in a third-party receiving the patent rights sought by us, which in turn could affect our ability to market a potential product to which that patent filing was directed. Our pending patent applications, those that we may file in the future, or those that we may license from third parties may not result in patents being issued. If issued, they may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar technology. Furthermore, others may independently develop similar technologies or duplicate any technology that we have developed. Many countries, including certain countries in Europe, have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. For example, compulsory licenses may be required in cases where the patent owner has failed to “work” the invention in that country, or the third-party has patented improvements. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of our patents. Moreover, the legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the aggressive enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, which makes it difficult to stop infringement.

 

In addition, our ability to enforce our patent rights depends on our ability to detect infringement. It is difficult to detect infringers who do not advertise or otherwise promote the compounds that are used in their products. Any litigation to enforce or defend our patent rights, even if we prevail, could be costly and time-consuming and would divert the attention of management and key personnel from business operations.

 

We will also rely on trade secrets, know-how and technology, which are not protected by patents, to maintain our competitive position. We will seek to protect this information by entering into confidentiality agreements with parties that have access to it, such as strategic partners, collaborators, employees, contractors and consultants. Any of these parties may breach these agreements and disclose our confidential information or our competitors might learn of the information in some other way. If any trade secret, know-how or other technology not protected by a patent were disclosed to, or independently developed by, a competitor, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

Risks Related to Commercialization of Our Current Product Candidate and Future Product Candidates

 

Our commercial success depends upon attaining significant market acceptance of our current product candidate and future product candidates, if approved, among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and cancer treatment centers.

 

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for our current product candidate or any future product candidates, the products may not gain market acceptance among physicians, healthcare payors, patients or the medical community, including cancer treatment centers. Market acceptance of any product candidates for which we receive approval depends on a number of factors, including:

 

  the efficacy and safety of such product candidates as demonstrated in clinical trials;
     
  the clinical indications and patient populations for which the product candidate is approved;
     
  acceptance by physicians, major cancer treatment centers and patients of the drug as a safe and effective treatment;
     
  the adoption of novel immunotherapies by physicians, hospitals and third-party payors;
     
  the potential and perceived advantages of product candidates over alternative treatments;
     
  the safety of product candidates seen in a broader patient group, including our use outside the approved indications;

 

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  any restrictions on use together with other medications;
     
  the prevalence and severity of any side effects;
     
  product labeling or product insert requirements of the FDA or other regulatory authorities;
     
  the timing of market introduction of our product as well as competitive products;
     
  the development of manufacturing and distribution processes for commercial scale manufacturing for our current product candidate and any future product candidates;
     
  the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments;
     
  the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors and government authorities;
     
  relative convenience and ease of administration; and
     
  the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts and those of our collaborators.

 

If our current product and any future product candidates are approved but fail to achieve market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors or cancer treatment centers, we will not be able to generate significant revenues, which would compromise our ability to become profitable.

 

Even if we are able to commercialize our current product candidate or any future product candidates, the products may not receive coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors in the U.S. and in other countries in which we seek to commercialize our products, which could harm our business.

 

Our ability to commercialize any product successfully will depend, in part, on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for such product and related treatments will be available from third-party payors, including government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations.

 

Third-party payors determine which medications they will cover and establish reimbursement levels. A primary trend in the healthcare industry is cost containment. Third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Third-party payors may also seek additional clinical evidence, beyond the data required to obtain regulatory approval, demonstrating clinical benefit and value in specific patient populations before covering our product for those patients. We cannot be sure that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be available for any product that we commercialize and, if coverage is available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain regulatory approval. If reimbursement is not available or is available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain regulatory approval.

 

There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the drug is approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Moreover, eligibility for coverage and reimbursement does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may only be temporary. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by third-party payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the U.S. No uniform policy for coverage and reimbursement exists in the U.S., and coverage and reimbursement can differ significantly from payor to payor. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies, but also have their own methods and approval process apart from Medicare determinations. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and profitable reimbursement rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved product that we develop could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, ability to raise capital needed to commercialize our product and overall financial condition.

 

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Healthcare legislative measures aimed at reducing healthcare costs may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

Third-party payors, whether domestic or foreign, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In both the U.S. and certain international jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the health care system that could impact our ability to sell our product profitably. In particular, in 2010, the Affordable Care Act (“ACA”) was enacted, which, among other things, subjected biologic products to potential competition by lower-cost biosimilars, addressed a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected, increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by most manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, extended the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to utilization of prescriptions of individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, subjected manufacturers to new annual fees and taxes for certain branded prescription drugs, and provided incentives to programs that increase the federal government’s comparative effectiveness research. Since its enactment, there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, as well as recent efforts by the current U.S. administration to repeal or repeal and replace certain aspects of the ACA. On December 14, 2018, a U.S. District Court Judge in the Northern District of Texas, or the Texas District Court Judge, ruled that the individual mandate is a critical and inseverable feature of the ACA, and therefore, because it was repealed as a part of the Tax Act, the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. While the Texas District Court Judge, as well as the Trump Administration and CMS, have stated that the ruling will have no immediate effect, it is unclear how this decision, subsequent appeals and other efforts to repeal and replace the ACA will impact the ACA. Until there is more certainty concerning the future of the ACA, it will be difficult to predict its full impact and influence on our business.

 

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the U.S. since the ACA was enacted. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect in 2013, and will remain in effect through 2027 unless additional Congressional action is taken. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 further reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.

 

There have been, and likely will continue to be, legislative and regulatory proposals at the foreign, federal and state levels directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. We cannot predict the initiatives that may be adopted in the future. The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of healthcare services to contain or reduce costs of healthcare and/or impose price controls may adversely affect:

 

  the demand for our product candidate, if we obtain regulatory approval;
     
  our ability to receive or set a price that we believe is fair for our product;
     
  our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability;
     
  the level of taxes that we are required to pay; and
     
  the availability of capital.

 

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We expect that the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, more rigorous coverage criteria, lower reimbursement and new payment methodologies. This could lower the price that we receive for any approved product. Any denial in coverage or reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar denial or reduction in payments from private payors, which may prevent us from being able to generate sufficient revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our product candidate, if approved.

 

Price controls may be imposed in foreign markets, which may adversely affect our future profitability.

 

In some countries, particularly member states of the European Union, the pricing of prescription drugs is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after receipt of regulatory approval for a product. In addition, there can be considerable pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels, including as part of cost containment measures. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after reimbursement has been obtained. Reference pricing used by various European Union member states and parallel distribution, or arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced member states, can further reduce prices.

 

In some countries, we or our collaborators may be required to conduct a clinical trial or other studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to other available therapies in order to obtain or maintain reimbursement or pricing approval. Publication of discounts by third-party payors or authorities may lead to further pressure on the prices or reimbursement levels within the country of publication and other countries. If reimbursement of our product is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be adversely affected.

 

Risks Related to Healthcare Compliance Regulations

 

Our relationships with customers and third-party payors will be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings. If we or they are unable to comply with these provisions, we may become subject to civil and criminal investigations and proceedings that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects.

 

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare providers, healthcare entities, third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we research, develop and will market, sell and distribute our product. As a pharmaceutical company, even though we do not and will not control referrals of healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are applicable to our business. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include the following:

 

  the federal healthcare Anti-Kickback Statute which prohibits, among other things, individuals and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;

 

  federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the federal False Claims Act that can be enforced through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, and civil monetary penalty laws, prohibit individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment or approval that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;

 

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  the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) which imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and also created federal criminal laws that prohibit knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (“HITECH”) which imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information on entities subject to the law, such as certain healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, known as covered entities, and their respective business associates that perform services for them that involve the creation, use, maintenance or disclosure of, individually identifiable health information;
     
  the federal physician sunshine requirements under the ACA which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies, with certain exceptions, to report annually to HHS information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians, other healthcare providers, and teaching hospitals, and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and other healthcare providers and their immediate family members and applicable group purchasing organizations;
     
  analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; some state laws which require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers, marketing expenditures or pricing information; and certain state and local laws which require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and
     
  state and foreign laws govern the privacy and security of health information in specified circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not pre-empted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

 

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, disgorgement, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. If any physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business are found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.

 

Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could cause significant liability for us and harm our reputation.

 

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct, including intentional failures to comply with FDA regulations or similar regulations of comparable foreign regulatory authorities, provide accurate information to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, comply with manufacturing standards we have established, comply with federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations and similar laws and regulations established and enforced by comparable foreign regulatory authorities, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business and results of operations, including the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and integrity oversight and reporting obligations.

 

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Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

 

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our current product candidate or future product candidates in human clinical trials and will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any products that we may develop. Product liability claims may be brought against us by subjects enrolled in our clinical trials, patients, healthcare providers or others using, administering or selling our product. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that our product candidate or product caused injuries, we could incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

  decreased demand for any product candidates or products that we may develop;
     
  termination of clinical trial sites or entire clinical trial programs;
     
  injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;
     
  withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
     
  significant costs to defend the related litigation;
     
  substantial monetary awards to trial subjects or patients;
     
  loss of revenue;
     
  diversion of management and scientific resources from our business operations; and
     
  the inability to commercialize any products that we may develop.

 

Prior to engaging in future clinical trials, we intend to obtain product liability insurance coverage at a level that we believe is customary for similarly situated companies and adequate to provide us with insurance coverage for foreseeable risks; however, we may be unable to obtain such coverage at a reasonable cost, if at all. If we are able to obtain product liability insurance, we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise and such insurance may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. Furthermore, we intend to expand our insurance coverage for products to include the sale of commercial products if we obtain regulatory approval for our product candidate in development, but we may be unable to obtain commercially reasonable product liability insurance for any products that receive regulatory approval. Large judgments have been awarded in class action lawsuits based on drugs that had unanticipated side effects. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us, particularly if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could decrease our cash and adversely affect our business.

 

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Risks Related to our Business Operations

 

We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.

 

We will face competition from numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology enterprises, as well as from academic institutions, government agencies and private and public research institutions for our current product candidate. Our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer side effects or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Competition could result in reduced sales and pricing pressure on our current product candidate, if approved, which in turn would reduce our ability to generate meaningful revenues and have a negative impact on our results of operations. In addition, significant delays in the development of our product candidate could allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to commercialize our product candidate. The biotechnology industry, including the cancer immunotherapy market, is intensely competitive and involves a high degree of risk. We compete with other companies that have far greater experience and financial, research and technical resources than us. Potential competitors in the U.S. and worldwide are numerous and include pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, educational institutions and research foundations, many of which have substantially greater capital resources, marketing experience, research and development staffs and facilities than ours. Some of our competitors may develop and commercialize products that compete directly with those incorporating our technology or may introduce products to market earlier than our product or on a more cost-effective basis. Our competitors compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to our technology. We may face competition with respect to product efficacy and safety, ease of use and adaptability to various modes of administration, acceptance by physicians, the timing and scope of regulatory approvals, availability of resources, reimbursement coverage, price and patent position, including the potentially dominant patent positions of others. An inability to successfully complete our product development or commercializing our product candidate could result in our having limited prospects for establishing market share or generating revenue.

 

Many of our competitors or potential competitors have significantly greater established presence in the market, financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do, and as a result may have a competitive advantage over us. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies and technology licenses complementary to our programs or potentially advantageous to our business.

 

As a result of these factors, these competitors may obtain regulatory approval of their products before we are able to obtain patent protection or other intellectual property rights, which will limit our ability to develop or commercialize our current product candidate. Our competitors may also develop drugs that are safer, more effective, more widely used and cheaper than ours, and may also be more successful than us in manufacturing and marketing their products. These appreciable advantages could render our product candidate obsolete or non-competitive before we can recover the expenses of development and commercialization.

 

Our business may be adversely affected by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.

 

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has evolved into a global pandemic. The coronavirus has spread to many regions of the world. The extent to which the coronavirus impacts our business and operating results will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the coronavirus and the actions to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, among others.

 

As a result of the continuing spread of the coronavirus, our business operations could be delayed or interrupted. For instance, our clinical trials may be affected by the pandemic. Site initiation, participant recruitment and enrollment, participant dosing, distribution of clinical trial materials, study monitoring and data analysis may be paused or delayed due to changes in hospital or university policies, federal, state or local regulations, prioritization of hospital resources toward pandemic efforts, or other reasons related to the pandemic. If the coronavirus continues to spread, some participants and clinical investigators may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols. For example, quarantines or other travel limitations (whether voluntary or required) may impede participant movement, affect sponsor access to study sites, or interrupt healthcare services, and we may be unable to conduct our clinical trials. Further, if the spread of the coronavirus pandemic continues and our operations are adversely impacted, we risk a delay, default and/or non-performance under existing agreements which may increase our costs. These cost increases may not be fully recoverable or adequately covered by insurance.

 

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Infections and deaths related to the pandemic may disrupt the United States’ healthcare and healthcare regulatory systems. Such disruptions could divert healthcare resources away from, or materially delay FDA review and/or approval with respect to, our clinical trials. It is unknown how long these disruptions could continue, were they to occur. Any elongation or de-prioritization of our clinical trials or delay in regulatory review resulting from such disruptions could materially affect the development and study of our product candidates.

 

We currently utilize third parties to, among other things, manufacture raw materials. If either any third-party parties in the supply chain for materials used in the production of our product candidates are adversely impacted by restrictions resulting from the coronavirus outbreak, our supply chain may be disrupted, limiting our ability to manufacture our product candidates for our clinical trials and research and development operations.

 

As a result of the shelter-in-place order and other mandated local travel restrictions, our employees conducting research and development or manufacturing activities may not be able to access their laboratory or manufacturing space which may result in our core activities being significantly limited or curtailed, possibly for an extended period of time.

 

The spread of the coronavirus, which has caused a broad impact globally, including restrictions on travel and quarantine policies put into place by businesses and governments, may have a material economic effect on our business. While the potential economic impact brought by and the duration of the pandemic may be difficult to assess or predict, it has already caused, and is likely to result in further, significant disruption of global financial markets, which may reduce our ability to access capital either at all or on favorable terms. In addition, a recession, depression or other sustained adverse market event resulting from the spread of the coronavirus could materially and adversely affect our business and the value of our common stock.

 

The ultimate impact of the current pandemic, or any other health epidemic, is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, our clinical trials, our research programs, healthcare systems or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on our operations, and we will continue to monitor the situation closely.

 

Significant disruptions of information technology systems, computer system failures or breaches of information security could adversely affect our business.

 

We rely to a large extent upon sophisticated information technology systems to operate our business. In the ordinary course of business, we collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information (including, but not limited to, personal information and intellectual property). The size and complexity of our information technology and information security systems, and those of our third-party vendors with whom we may contract, make such systems potentially vulnerable to service interruptions or to security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees or vendors, or from malicious attacks by third parties. Such attacks are of ever-increasing levels of sophistication and are made by groups and individuals with a wide range of motives (including, but not limited to, industrial espionage and market manipulation) and expertise. While we intend to invest in the protection of data and information technology, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent service interruptions or security breaches.

 

Our internal computer systems, and those of our CROs, our CMOs, and other business vendors on which we may rely, are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, fire, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. We exercise little or no control over these third parties, which increases our vulnerability to problems with their systems. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our drug development programs. Any interruption or breach in our systems could adversely affect our business operations and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive confidential information or intellectual property, and could result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us or allow third parties to gain material, inside information that they use to trade in our securities. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability, the further development of our current and future product candidates could be delayed and our business could be otherwise adversely affected.

 

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We will need to grow the size of our organization in the future, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

 

As of February 25, 2021, we had two full-time employees and two part-time employees. We will need to grow the size of our organization in order to support our continued development and potential commercialization of our product candidate. As our development and commercialization plans and strategies continue to develop, our need for additional managerial, operational, manufacturing, sales, marketing, financial and other resources may increase. Our management, personnel and systems currently in place may not be adequate to support this future growth. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:

 

  managing our clinical trials effectively;
     
  identifying, recruiting, maintaining, motivating and integrating additional employees;
     
  managing our internal development efforts effectively while complying with our contractual obligations to licensors, licensees, contractors and other third parties;
     
  improving our managerial, development, operational, information technology, and finance systems; and
     
  expanding our facilities.

 

If our operations expand, we will also need to manage additional relationships with various strategic partners, suppliers and other third parties. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize our product candidate and to compete effectively will depend, in part, on our ability to manage any future growth effectively, as well as our ability to develop a sales and marketing force when appropriate for our company. To that end, we must be able to manage our development efforts and preclinical studies and clinical trials effectively and hire, train and integrate additional management, research and development, manufacturing, administrative and sales and marketing personnel. The failure to accomplish any of these tasks could prevent us from successfully growing our company.

 

Inadequate funding for the FDA, the SEC and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

 

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of the SEC and other government agencies on which our operations may rely, including those that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

 

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, have had to furlough critical FDA, SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, upon completion of this offering and in our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

 

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Risks Related to Owning our Common Stock

 

We are a “smaller reporting company” and we have elected to comply with certain reduced reporting and disclosure requirements which could make its common stock less attractive to investors.

 

We are a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in the Regulation S-K of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, which allows us to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not smaller reporting companies, including (1) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, and (2) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. In addition, as an emerging growth company, we are only required to provide two years of audited financial statements in this document. As a result of these reduced reporting and disclosure requirements our financial statements may not be comparable to SEC registrants not classified as emerging growth companies.

 

We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until we are no longer a “smaller reporting company”. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls in the future.

 

Investors may find our common stock less attractive as a result of our election to utilize these exemptions, which could result in a less active trading market for our common stock and/or the market price of our common stock may be more volatile.

 

The price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially.

 

An investment in our common stock may be considered to be risky, and an investment in our Shares should be made only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuations in the market value of your investment. Some factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate, in addition to the other risks mentioned in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this prospectus, are:

 

  sale of our common stock by our stockholders, executives, and directors and our stockholders whose shares are being registered in this offering;
     
  volatility and limitations in trading volumes of our shares of common stock;
     
  our ability to obtain financings to conduct and complete research and development activities including, but not limited to, our clinical trials, and other business activities;
     
  possible delays in the expected recognition of revenue due to lengthy and sometimes unpredictable sales timelines;
     
  the timing and success of introductions of new products by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers or strategic partners;

 

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  network outages or security breaches;
     
  our ability to secure resources and the necessary personnel to conduct clinical trials on our desired schedule;
     
  commencement, enrollment or results of our clinical trials for our product candidate or any future clinical trials we may conduct;
     
  changes in the development status of our product candidate;
     
  any delays or adverse developments or perceived adverse developments with respect to the FDA’s review of our planned preclinical and clinical trials;
     
  any delay in our submission for studies or product approvals or adverse regulatory decisions, including failure to receive regulatory approval for our product candidate;
     
  unanticipated safety concerns related to the use of our product candidate;
     
  failures to meet external expectations or management guidance;
     
  changes in our capital structure or dividend policy, future issuances of securities, sales of large blocks of common stock by our stockholders;
     
  our cash position;
     
  announcements and events surrounding financing efforts, including debt and equity securities;
     
  our inability to enter into new markets or develop new products;
     
  reputational issues;
     
  competition from existing technologies and products or new technologies and products that may emerge;
     
  announcements of acquisitions, partnerships, collaborations, joint ventures, new products, capital commitments, or other events by us or our competitors;
     
  changes in general economic, political and market conditions in or any of the regions in which we conduct our business;
     
  changes in industry conditions or perceptions;
     
  changes in valuations of similar companies or groups of companies;
     
  analyst research reports, recommendation and changes in recommendations, price targets, and withdrawals of coverage;
     
  departures and additions of key personnel;
     
  disputes and litigations related to intellectual properties, proprietary rights, and contractual obligations;
     
  changes in applicable laws, rules, regulations, or accounting practices and other dynamics; and
     
  other events or factors, many of which may be out of our control.

 

 S-39 
   

 

In addition, if the market for stocks in our industry or industries related to our industry, or the stock market in general, experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management.

 

A sale or perceived sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock may cause the price of our common stock to decline.

 

In connection with our November 2020 public offering, all of our executive officers and directors and certain of our stockholders and warrant holders have agreed not to sell shares of our common stock for a period of 180 days from November 30, 2020, subject to extension under specified circumstances. Common stock subject to these lock-up agreements will become eligible for sale in the public market upon expiration of these lock-up agreements, subject to limitations imposed by Rule 144 under the Securities Act. If our stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the market price of our common stock could fall. Moreover, the perceived risk of this potential dilution could cause stockholders to attempt to sell their shares and investors to short our common stock. These sales also may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem reasonable or appropriate.

 

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

 

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the currently intended purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds”. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management may not apply our cash from this offering in ways that ultimately increase the value of any investment in our securities or enhance stockholder value. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply our cash in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which may result in a decline in the price of our shares of common stock, and, therefore, may negatively impact our ability to raise capital, invest in or expand our business, acquire additional products or licenses, commercialize our product, or continue our operations.

 

Market and economic conditions may negatively impact our business, financial condition and share price.

 

Concerns over medical epidemics, energy costs, geopolitical issues, the U.S. mortgage market and a deteriorating real estate market, unstable global credit markets and financial conditions, and volatile oil prices have led to periods of significant economic instability, diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence and discretionary spending, diminished expectations for the global economy and expectations of slower global economic growth, increased unemployment rates, and increased credit defaults in recent years. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturns (including the current downturn related to the current COVID-19 pandemic), volatile business environments and continued unstable or unpredictable economic and market conditions. If these conditions continue to deteriorate or do not improve, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to complete, more costly, and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance, and share price and could require us to delay or abandon development or commercialization plans.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports, or publish unfavorable research or reports about our business, our stock price and trading volume may decline.

 

The trading market for our common stock will rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us, our business, our markets and our competitors. We do not control these analysts. If securities analysts do not cover our common stock after the closing of this offering, the lack of research coverage may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover us downgrade our stock or if those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary about us or our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the market and interest in our stock could decrease, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline and may also impair our ability to expand our business with existing customers and attract new customers.

 

 S-40 
   

 

Because certain of our stockholders control a significant number of shares of our common stock, they may have effective control over actions requiring stockholder approval.

 

Following this offering, our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders, and their respective affiliates, will beneficially own approximately 69% of our outstanding shares of common stock. The percentage increases to approximately 71% in the event that the shares of our Series A Preferred Stock are converted into shares of common stock. As a result, these stockholders, acting together, would have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, acting together, would have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership might harm the market price of our common stock by:

 

  delaying, deferring or preventing a change in corporate control;
     
  impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us; or
     
  discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

 

You will incur immediate dilution as a result of this offering

 

If you purchase shares in this offering, you will pay more for your shares of common stock than the net tangible book value of your shares. As a result, you will incur immediate dilution of $3.00 per share, representing the difference between the offering price of $3.70 per share and our estimated as adjusted pro forma net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020 of $0.70 per share. Accordingly, should we be liquidated at our book value, you would not receive the full amount of your investment.

 

Future sales and issuances of our common stock could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our share price to fall.

 

We expect that significant additional capital will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations, including increased marketing, hiring new personnel, commercializing our product, and continuing activities as an operating public company. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. Such sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders.

 

We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our shares of common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our shares.

 

We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the increase, if any, of our share price.

 

 S-41 
   

 

We may be at risk of securities class action litigation.

 

We may be at risk of securities class action litigation. In the past, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility, particularly when associated with binary events such as clinical trials and product approvals. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business and results in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws, and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control, which may cause our stock price to decline.

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws, and Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if closing such a transaction would be beneficial to our stockholders. We are authorized to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock. This preferred stock may be issued in one or more series, the terms of which may be determined at the time of issuance by our Board of Directors without further action by stockholders. The terms of any series of preferred stock may include voting rights (including the right to vote as a series on particular matters), preferences as to dividend, liquidation, conversion and redemption rights and sinking fund provisions. As of February 25, 2021, we have designated 350,000 shares of preferred stock as Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, all of which are issued and outstanding. The issuance of any preferred stock could materially adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock, and therefore, reduce the value of our common stock. In particular, specific rights granted to future holders of preferred stock could be used to restrict our ability to merge with, or sell our assets to, a third party and thereby preserve control by the present management.

 

Provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Delaware law also could have the effect of discouraging potential acquisition proposals or making a tender offer or delaying or preventing a change in control, including changes a stockholder might consider favorable. Such provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. In particular, the certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law, as applicable, among other things:

 

  provide the board of directors with the ability to alter the bylaws without stockholder approval;
     
  place limitations on the removal of directors;
     
  establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings; and
     
  provide that vacancies on the board of directors may be filled by a majority of directors in office, although less than a quorum.

 

Financial reporting obligations of being a public company in the U.S. are expensive and time-consuming, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to compliance matters.

 

As a publicly traded company we incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses. The obligations of being a public company in the U.S. require significant expenditures and will place significant demands on our management and other personnel, including costs resulting from public company reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations regarding corporate governance practices, including those under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the listing requirements of the stock exchange on which our securities are listed. These rules require the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and procedures, internal control over financial reporting and changes in corporate governance practices, among many other complex rules that are often difficult to implement, monitor and maintain compliance with. Moreover, despite recent reforms made possible by the JOBS Act, the reporting requirements, rules, and regulations will make some activities more time-consuming and costly, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company”. In addition, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to ensure that we comply with all of these requirements and to keep pace with new regulations, otherwise we may fall out of compliance and risk becoming subject to litigation or being delisted, among other potential problems.

 

If we fail to comply with the rules under Sarbanes-Oxley related to accounting controls and procedures in the future, or, if we discover material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult.

 

Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to comply with the rules under Sarbanes-Oxley related to disclosure controls and procedures in the future, or, if we discover material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult. If material weaknesses or significant deficiencies are discovered or if we otherwise fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley. Moreover, effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to helping prevent financial fraud. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business and operating results could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and the trading price of our common stock could drop significantly.

 

 S-42 
   

 

DILUTION

 

If you purchase shares in this offering, you will experience dilution to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. The historical net tangible book value of our common stock on September 30, 2020 was $1,140,926, or $0.10 per share. Net tangible book value per share is equal to the amount of our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, divided by the aggregate number of shares of our common stock outstanding.

 

On a pro forma basis, after giving effect to our public offering consummated on November 30, 2020 of 1,200,000 units (each unit consisting of one share of common stock and one common stock purchase warrant) at an offering price of $4.75 per unit, and after deducting the Placement Agents’ fees and the offering expenses paid in such offering, our pro forma net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 would have been $5,748,426, or approximately $0.46 per share.

 

On a pro forma as adjusted basis, after giving effect to the sale of 1,133,102 shares in this offering at an offering price of $3.70 per share and after deducting the Placement Agents’ fees and the offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $9,438,457, or approximately $0.70 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $0.24 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of approximately $3.00 per share to new investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Offering price per share  $3.70 
Net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020  $0.10 
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020  $0.46 
Increase per share attributable to new investors in this offering  $0.24 
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020  $0.70 
Dilution per share to investors participating in this offering  $3.00 

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering as shown above is based on 12,374,302 shares outstanding as of February 25, 2021 and excludes as of that date:

 

  729,167 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of 350,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock outstanding at a conversion rate of 2.083 common shares per preferred share, reflecting an effective conversion price of $4.800 per common share.
     
  1,508,333 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding common stock options issued to members of management, consultants, and directors at a weighted average exercise price of $4.11 per common share.
     
  1,500,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding common stock warrants at an average exercise price of $6.00 per common share.
     
  2,133,333 shares of common stock reserved for future grants pursuant to our 2020 Stock Incentive Plan.
     
  120,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants issued to the underwriters as part of the public offering in November 2020 at an exercise price of $5.70 per common share (120% of the public offering price of $4.75 per share).
     
  1,200,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants issued in our public offering in November 2020, which have an exercise price of $5.70 per share and expire on November 30, 2025, and 180,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants issued in our public offering in December 2020, which have an exercise price of $5.70 per share and expire on December 7, 2025.
     
  113,310 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of the Placement Agents’ Warrants to be issued as compensation to the Placement Agents for this offering, with an exercise price of $3.70 per share.
  200,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding common stock options issued to non-officer directors on January 7, 2021 at an exercise price of $3.21 per share.

 

 S-43 
   

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Assuming all of the shares offered in this offering are sold, we estimate that our net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $3,690,031.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for continuing operating expenses and working capital.

 

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, the Company cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received upon the completion of this offering. The amounts and timing of its actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the status of the Company’s drug development activities, clinical trial programs, patent expenditures, regulatory and compliance issues, research and development activities, and other operating expenditures. Accordingly, the Company’s management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds and investors will be relying on the judgment of its management regarding the application of the proceeds of this offering.

 

 S-44 
   

 

DESCRIPTION OF OUR COMMON STOCK

 

The material terms and provisions of our common stock are described in the section titled “Description of Securities We May Offer” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Securities Exchange Listing

 

Our common stock and warrants are listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “LIXT” and “LIXTW”, respectively.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare, Inc.

 

 S-45 
   

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

Pursuant to an engagement agreement, dated February 26, 2021, we have engaged WestPark Capital, Inc. and WallachBeth Capital, LLC (the “Placement Agents”) to act as our exclusive placement agents, on a reasonable best efforts basis, in connection with this offering of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus. The terms of this offering are subject to market conditions and negotiations between us, the Placement Agents, and prospective investors. The engagement agreement does not give rise to any commitment by the Placement Agents to purchase any of our common stock, and the Placement Agents will have no authority to bind us by virtue of the engagement agreement. The placement agents are not purchasing the securities offered by us in this offering and are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will assist us in this offering on a reasonable best efforts basis. Further, the Placement Agents do not guarantee that it will be able to raise new capital in any prospective offering. The Placement Agents may engage sub-agents or selected dealers to assist with the offering.

 

On February 26, 2021, we entered into a securities purchase agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) directly with certain investors in connection with this offering for the sale of an aggregate of 1,154,054 shares of common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We will only sell to investors who have entered into securities purchase agreements with us. The Purchase Agreement provides that from the date of the Purchase Agreement until 180 days from the date thereof, we cannot enter into a variable rate transaction, subject to certain exceptions.

 

We expect to deliver the shares of our common stock being offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement on or about March 2, 2021, subject to satisfaction of certain closing conditions.

 

Fees and Expenses

 

We have agreed to pay to the Placement Agents a cash fee equal to 7.75%of the aggregate gross proceeds raised in this offering. The following table shows the total placement agent cash fees we will pay in connection with the sale of the securities in this offering, assuming the purchase of all of the securities we are offering.

 

Placement Agent Fee per Share  $0.2867 
Total Placement Agent Fees  $324,917 

 

We estimate the total expenses payable by us for this offering to be approximately $502,447, which amount includes (i) a Placement Agents’ fee of $324,917, assuming the purchase of all of the securities we are offering; (ii) a $72,530 non-accountable expense allowance payable to the Placement Agents; and (iii) up to $75,000 for Placement Agents’ counsel fees; and (iv) other estimated expenses of approximately $30,000, which include legal, accounting, and various fees associated with the registration and listing of our shares. In addition, we have agreed to issue the Placement Agents’ Warrants to the Placement Agent. See “Placement Agents’ Warrants” below for additional detail.

 

Placement Agents’ Warrants

 

We have agreed to issue to the Placement Agents warrants (the “Placement Agents’ Warrants”) to purchase up to 113,310 shares of our common stock, which represent 10.0% of the number of shares of common stock being sold in this offering. The Placement Agent’s Warrants will have a term of five years from the date of commencement of sales in this offering and an exercise price equal to $3.70 per share, which represents 100% of the offering price for the common stock sold in this offering.

 

Tail Financing Payments

 

We have also agreed to pay the Placement Agents, subject to certain exceptions, a tail fee equal to the cash and warrant compensation in this offering, if any investor, who was contacted or introduced to us by the Placement Agents during the term of their engagement, provides us with capital in any public or private offering or other financing or capital raising transaction during the 18-month period following expiration or termination of our engagement of the Placement Agents.

 

 S-46 
   

 

The Nasdaq Capital Market Listing

 

Our common stock is currently traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “LIXT”. On February 25, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $3.77 per share. We do not plan to list the Placement Agents’ Warrants on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any other securities exchange or trading market.

 

Indemnification

 

We have agreed to indemnify the Placement Agents and specified other persons against some civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and to contribute to payments that the Placement Agents may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.

 

Regulation M

 

The Placement Agent may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act and any fees received by it and any profit realized on the sale of the securities by it while acting as principal might be deemed to be underwriting discounts or commissions under the Securities Act. The Placement Agent will be required to comply with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act including, without limitation, Rule 10b-5 and Regulation M under the Exchange Act. These rules and regulations may limit the timing of purchases and sales of our securities by the Placement Agent. Under these rules and regulations, the Placement Agent may not (i) engage in any stabilization activity in connection with our securities; and (ii) bid for or purchase any of our securities or attempt to induce any person to purchase any of our securities, other than as permitted under the Exchange Act, until they have completed their participation in the distribution.

 

Other Relationships

 

From time to time, the Placement Agents may provide in the future, various advisory, investment and commercial banking and other services to us in the ordinary course of business, for which it may receive customary fees and commissions. The Placement Agents acted as our underwriters in connection with our public offering consummated in November 2020, for which they received compensation. However, except as disclosed in this prospectus supplement, we have no present arrangements with the Placement Agents for any services.

 

 S-47 
   

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by TroyGould PC, Los Angeles, California. Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton, LLP, New York, New York, will advise on certain legal matters in connection with the offering on behalf of the Placement Agents.

 

EXPERTS

 

Weinberg & Company, PA, an independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, as set forth in their report, which includes an explanatory paragraph as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern, dated March 25, 2020, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Weinberg & Company, PA’s report, given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC, which are available at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. In addition, we maintain a website that contains information about us at http://www.lixte.com. The information found on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not incorporated into, and does not form a part of, this prospectus supplement or any other report or document we file with or furnish to the SEC.

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-252430) under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement. When used in this prospectus supplement, the term “registration statement” includes amendments to the registration statement as well as the exhibits, schedules, financial statements and notes filed as part of the registration statement or incorporated by reference therein. This prospectus supplement, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information on us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the common stock we are offering by this prospectus supplement. Statements herein concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s website.

 

 S-48 
   

 

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

This prospectus supplement is part of the registration statement but the registration statement includes and incorporates by reference additional information and exhibits. The SEC permits us to “incorporate by reference” the information contained in documents we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents rather than by including them in this prospectus supplement. Information that is incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and you should read it with the same care that you read this prospectus supplement. Information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information that is either contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus supplement, and will be considered to be a part of this prospectus supplement from the date those documents are filed. We have filed with the SEC, and incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement:

 

  Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on August 6, 2019, July 17, 2020, August 18, 2020, November 27, 2020, December 2, 2020, and January 22, 2021;
     
 

Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on August 6, 2019, May 11, 2020, August 10, 2020, and November 10, 2020; and

     
  An Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 25, 2020.

 

In addition, all documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, prior to the termination of the offering (excluding any information furnished rather than filed) shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

Notwithstanding the statements in the preceding paragraphs, no document, report or exhibit (or portion of any of the foregoing) or any other information that we have “furnished” to the SEC pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, shall be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents to:

 

Lixte Biotechnology Holdings, Inc.

248 Route 25A, No. 2

East Setauket, New York 11733

Phone: (631) 830-7092

 

You also may access these filings on our website at http://www.lixte.com. We do not incorporate the information on our website into this prospectus supplement or any supplement to this prospectus and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus supplement or any supplement to this prospectus (other than those filings with the SEC that we specifically incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement or any supplement to this prospectus).

 

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement will be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement. Any statement contained herein or in any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part to the extent that a statement contained in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed to constitute a part of the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part, except as so modified or superseded.

 

 S-49 
   

 

PROSPECTUS

 

LIXTE BIOTECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS, INC.

 

$20,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

 

 

From time to time, we may offer and sell up to an aggregate amount of $20,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters and also to other purchasers or through agents. The names of any underwriters or agents, and any fees, discounts or other compensation payable to them will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement accompanying this prospectus.

 

We will provide the specific terms of these offerings in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered. This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “LIXT.” On January 25, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market was $3.33 per share.

 

These securities may be sold directly by us, through dealers or agents designated from time to time, to or through underwriters, dealers, or through a combination of these methods on a continuous or delayed basis. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. We may also describe the plan of distribution for any particular offering of our securities in a prospectus supplement. If any agents, underwriters or dealers are involved in the sale of any securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, we will disclose their names and the nature of our arrangements with them in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from any such sale will also be included in a prospectus supplement.

 

 

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus and in any applicable prospectus supplement and free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectuses.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is February 5, 2021.

 

   
   

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 1
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 2
RISK FACTORS 5
THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER 6
USE OF PROCEEDS 7
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 7
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 10
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 18
DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS 19
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 21
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES 21
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 24
LEGAL MATTERS 26
EXPERTS 26
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 26
INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE 26

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and sell, either individually or in combination, in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $20,000,000 of shares of our common stock (“Common Stock”), preferred stock (“Preferred Stock”), various series of debt securities, rights to purchase shares of our Common Stock or Preferred Stock, and/or warrants to purchase any such securities, either individually or as units comprised of a combination of one or more of the other securities .

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Information Incorporated by Reference,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information in addition to or different from that contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for and can provide no assurances as to the reliability of, any information not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “Lixte,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” refer, collectively, to Lixte Biotechnology Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable series of securities.

 

NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). For this purpose, any statements contained herein, other than statements of historical fact, may be forward-looking statements under the provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including any statements about our future performance, business, financial condition, strategic transactions (including mergers, acquisitions and management services agreements), sources of revenue, operating results, plans, objectives, expectations and intentions; any statements regarding future economic conditions; and any statements of belief or assumptions including underlying any of the foregoing. In this prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” and variations of such words or similar expressions are used to identify these forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements as a result of various important factors. These risks are described in greater detail in the section entitled “Risk Factors” of this prospectus. Many of these factors that will determine actual results are beyond our ability to control or predict. If one or more of these factors materialize, or if any underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results, performance or achievements may vary materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In addition, any forward-looking statements in this prospectus represent our views only as of the date of this prospectus and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause its views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements publicly at some point in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, except as may be required by law, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Our forward-looking statements generally do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

 

Please refer to the section entitled “Risk Factors” of this prospectus, and any other risk factors set forth in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in any information incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement to better understand the risks and uncertainties inherent in our business and underlying any forward-looking statements, as well as any other risk factors and cautionary statements described in the documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Definitive Proxy Statements on Schedule 14A and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including sections therein titled “Risk Factors” and “Note About Forward-Looking Statements,” respectively. See “Information Incorporated by Reference” of this prospectus.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all the information that you should consider before making a decision to invest in our securities. We urge you to carefully read this entire prospectus and all applicable prospectus supplements, including the more detailed information regarding our Company, the securities being registered hereby, as well as our consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC. Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risks. Therefore, carefully consider the risk factors set forth in Lixte’s most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus, all applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

 

The Company

 

Company Overview

 

We are a drug discovery company that uses biomarker technology to identify enzyme targets associated with serious common diseases and then designs novel compounds to attack those targets. Our product pipeline is primarily focused on inhibitors of protein phosphatases, used alone and in combination with cytotoxic agents and/or x-ray and immune checkpoint blockers, and encompasses two major categories of compounds at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development that we believe have broad therapeutic potential not only for cancer but also for other debilitating and life-threatening diseases.

 

We have developed two series of pharmacologically active drugs, the LB-100 series and the LB-200 series. We believe that the mechanism by which compounds of the LB-100 series affect cancer cell growth is different from cancer agents currently approved for clinical use. Lead compounds from each series have activity against a broad spectrum of common and rarer human cancers in cell culture systems. In addition, compounds from both series have anti-cancer activity in animal models of glioblastoma multiforme, neuroblastoma, and medulloblastoma, all cancers of neural tissue. Lead compounds of the LB-100 series also have activity against melanoma, breast cancer and sarcoma in animal models and enhance the effectiveness of commonly used anti-cancer drugs in these model systems. The enhancement of anti-cancer activity of these anti-cancer drugs occurs at doses of LB-100 that do not significantly increase toxicity in animals. It is therefore hoped that, when combined with standard anti-cancer regimens against many tumor types, our compounds will improve therapeutic benefit without enhancing toxicity in humans.

 

Our activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including the need for additional capital, as described below. We have not yet commenced any revenue-generating operations, do not have positive cash flows from operations, and are dependent on periodic infusions of equity capital to fund our operating requirements.

 

Product Candidates

 

The LB-100 series consists of novel structures which have the potential to be first in their class and may be useful in the treatment of not only several types of cancer but also vascular and metabolic diseases. The LB-200 series contains compounds which have the potential to be the most effective in its class and may be useful for the treatment of chronic hereditary diseases, such as Gaucher’s disease, in addition to cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

 

We have demonstrated that lead compounds of both the LB-100 series and the LB-200 are active against a broad spectrum of human cancers in cell culture and against several types of human cancers in animal models. The research on these compounds was initiated in 2006 under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, or CRADA, with the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, or NINDS, of the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, dated March 22, 2006 that was subsequently extended through a series of amendments until it terminated on April 1, 2013. As discussed below, our primary focus is on the clinical development of LB-100.

 

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The LB-200 series consists of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). Many pharmaceutical companies are also developing drugs of this type, and at least two companies have HDACi approved for clinical use, in both cases for the treatment of a type of lymphoma. Despite this significant competition, we have demonstrated that our HDACi have broad activity against many cancer types, have neuroprotective activity, and have anti-fungal activity. In addition, these compounds have low toxicity. LB-200 has not yet advanced to the clinical stage and would require additional capital to fund further development. Accordingly, because of our focus on the clinical development of LB-100 and analogs for cancer therapy as described below in more detail, we have decided not to actively pursue the pre-clinical development of our LB-200 series of compounds at this time. At this time, we intend to only maintain composition of matter patents for LB-200.

 

Collaborations with leading academic research centers in the United States, Europe and Asia have established the breadth of activity of LB-100 in pre-clinical models of several major cancers. There is considerable scientific interest in LB-100 because it exerts its activity by a novel mechanism and is the first of its type to be evaluated so broadly in multiple animal models of cancer and now in human beings. LB-100 is one of a series of serine/threonine phosphatase (s/t ptase) inhibitors designed by us. The s/t ptases are ubiquitous enzymes that regulate many cell signaling networks important to cell growth, division and death. The s/t ptases have long been appreciated as potentially important targets for anti-cancer drugs. However, because of the multi- functionality of these enzymes, it had been widely held that pharmacologic inhibitors of s/t ptases would be too toxic to allow their development as anti-cancer treatments, but we have shown that this is not the case. LB-100 was well tolerated at doses associated with objective regression (significant tumor shrinkage) and/or the arresting of tumor progression in patients with progressive cancers.

 

Pre-clinical studies showed that LB-100 itself inhibits a spectrum of human cancers and that combined with standard cytotoxic drugs and/or radiation, LB-100 potentiates their effectiveness against hematologic and solid tumor cancers without enhancing toxicity. Given at very low doses in animal models of cancer, LB-100 markedly increased the effectiveness of a PD-1 blocker, one of the widely used new immunotherapy drugs. This finding raises the possibility that LB-100 may further expand the value of the expanding field of cancer immunotherapy.

 

We completed a Phase 1 clinical trial of LB-100 to evaluate its safety that showed it is associated with antitumor activity in humans at doses that are readily tolerable. Responses included objective regression (tumor shrinkage) lasting for 11 months of a pancreatic cancer and cessation of growth (stabilization of disease) for 4 months or more of 9 other progressive solid tumors out of 20 patients who had measurable disease. As Phase 1 clinical trials are fundamentally designed to determine safety of a new compound in humans, we were encouraged by these results. The next step is to demonstrate in Phase 2 clinical trials the efficacy of LB-100 in one or more specific tumor types, against which the compound has well documented activity in pre-clinical models.

 

Current Studies

 

Moffitt. Effective August 20, 2018, we entered into a Clinical Trial Research Agreement with the Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute Hospital Inc., Tampa, Florida, effective for a term of five years, unless terminated earlier by us pursuant to 30 days written notice. Pursuant to the Clinical Trial Research Agreement, Moffitt agreed to conduct and manage a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of our lead anti-cancer clinical compound LB-100 to be administered intravenously in patients with low or intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

 

In November 2018, we received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or “FDA” for our Investigational New Drug or “IND” Application to conduct a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of LB-100 in patients with low and intermediate-1 risk MDS who have failed or are intolerant of standard treatment. Patients with MDS, although usually older, are generally well except for severe anemia requiring frequent blood transfusions. This Phase 1b/2 clinical trial utilizes LB-100 as a single agent in the treatment of patients with low and intermediate-1 risk MDS, including patients with del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (del5qMDS) failing first line therapy. The bone marrow cells of patients with del5qMDS are deficient in PP2A by virtue of an acquired mutation and are especially vulnerable to further inhibition of PP2A by LB-100. The clinical trial began at a single site in April 2019 and the first patient was entered into the clinical trial in July 2019. A total enrollment of 41 patients is planned.

 

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GEIS. As of July 31, 2019, we entered into a Collaboration Agreement for an Investigator-Initiated Clinical Trial with the Spanish Sarcoma Group (Grupo Español de Investigación en Sarcomas or “GEIS”), Madrid, Spain, to carry out a clinical trial to obtain information about the efficacy and safety of LB-100 combined with doxorubicin in soft tissue sarcomas. Doxorubicin is the global standard for initial treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcomas (“ASTS”). Doxorubicin alone has been the mainstay of first line treatment of ASTS for over 40 years, with little therapeutic gain from adding cytotoxic compounds to or substituting other cytotoxic compounds for doxorubicin. In animal models, LB-100 consistently enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin without apparent increases in toxicity.

 

NCI. During the fourth quarter of 2019, the National Cancer Institute, or NCI, enrolled the first two patients of a planned eight patient pharmacologic study of the ability of LB-100 to enter the brain and penetrate recurrent brain tumors in patients where surgical removal of the cancers is indicated (clinical trials registry NCT03027388). This study is being conducted and funded by the NCI under a CRADA with us; additional information will be reported by us as it is provided by the NCI.

 

City of Hope. Effective January 18, 2021, we entered into a Clinical Trials Agreement with the City of Hope to carry out a Phase 1b clinical trial of LB-100, combined with a standard regimen for untreated, extensive stage-disease small cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC). LB-100 will be given in combination with carboplatin, etoposide and Atelolizumab, an FDA approved but marginally effective regimen, to previously untreated ED-SCLC patients. The dose of LB-100 will be escalated with fixed doses of the 3-drug regimen to reach a recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D).

 

Risks Associated with Our Business

 

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware of before making an investment decision. . Some of these risks include the following:

 

  We have incurred substantial losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial and increasing losses for the foreseeable future.
     
  We will require substantial additional financing to achieve our goals, and a failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.
     
  We currently have no source of revenues. We may never generate revenues or achieve profitability.
     
  We expect to continue to incur significant operating and non-operating expenses, which may make it difficult for us to secure sufficient financing and may lead to uncertainty about our ability to continue as a going concern.
     
  We are dependent in part on technologies we license, and if we lose the right to license such technologies or we fail to license new technologies in the future, our ability to develop new products would be harmed, and if we fail to meet our obligations under our current or future license agreements, we may lose the ability to develop our product candidate.
     
  We expect to face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
     
  We are currently a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a product candidate in clinical development. If we are unable to successfully develop and commercialize our product candidate or experience significant delays in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.
     
  Our success relies on third-party suppliers and manufacturers. Any failure by such third parties, including, but not limited to, failure to successfully perform and comply with regulatory requirements, could negatively impact our business and our ability to develop and market our product candidate, and our business could be substantially harmed.

 

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  Our future success is dependent on the regulatory approval of our product candidate.
     
  Our business may be adversely affected by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.
     
  Business interruptions could adversely affect future operations, revenues, and financial conditions, and may increase our cost of expenses.
     
  Our failure to find third party collaborators to assist or share in the costs of product development could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
     
  If we fail to comply with our obligations under our license agreement with licensors, we could lose rights that are important to our business.
     
  We may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may prevent or delay our product development efforts.
     
  Our intellectual property may not be sufficient to protect our products from competition.

 

Our principal place of business is located 248 Route 25A No. 2, East Setauket, NY 11733. (631) 880-2907. Our telephone number is (631) 880-2907. Our corporate website address is www.lixte.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

 

For more information about our company, please refer to other documents that we have filed with the SEC and that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as listed under the heading “Incorporation by Reference.”

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. Before making an investment decision, with respect to any of our securities, you should carefully consider the information set forth in this prospectus including under the heading “Risks Associated with our Business” and in any applicable prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our’ most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K on file with the SEC, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future

 

The risks included in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and the documents we have incorporated by reference are not the only ones we face. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. The occurrence of any of these risks could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. As a result, the value of our securities could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment therein. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. Conditions that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operation. For more information, see the section entitled “Information Incorporated by Reference” in this prospectus.

 

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THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

We may offer shares of Common Stock and Preferred Stock, various series of debt securities, rights to purchase shares of Common Stock and Preferred Stock, and/or warrants to purchase any such securities, either individually or in combination, up to a total dollar amount of $20,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  designation or classification;
     
  aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;
     
  maturity;
     
  original issue discount, if any;
     
  rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;
     
  redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;
     
  conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;
     
  ranking;
     
  restrictive covenants, if any;
     
  voting or other rights, if any; and
     
  important U.S. federal income tax considerations.

 

Any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF OUR SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We and our agents or underwriters reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

  the names of those agents or underwriters;
     
  applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;
     
  details regarding over-allotment or other options, if any; and
     
  the net proceeds to us

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes, funding future acquisition of other companies, purchasing other assets or lines of business, repurchasing Common Stock, or for any other purpose we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of these areas or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion regarding the application of the net proceeds from the sale of securities described in this prospectus.

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following is a summary description of the Common Stock, which does not purport to be complete and is summarized from, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, and Amended and Restated Bylaws, and Certificate of Designation, to which you should refer and copies of which are incorporated herein by reference as Exhibits 3.1 - 3.4, 3.5 - 3.7, 4.1 and 4.2, respectively, and to the registration statement on Form S-3 of which this prospectus forms a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law, including the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

Common Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to a total of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. Holders of our common stock have no cumulative voting rights.

 

Further, holders of our common stock have no pre-emptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share in all assets remaining after payment of all liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any of our outstanding shares of preferred stock. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of our assets which are legally available. Each outstanding share of our common stock is, and all shares of common stock to be issued in this offering when they are paid for will be, fully paid and non-assessable.

 

The holders of a majority of the shares of our capital stock, represented in person or by proxy, are necessary to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting. If a quorum is present, an action by stockholders entitled to vote on a matter is approved if the number of votes cast in favor of the action exceeds the number of votes cast in opposition to the action, with the exception of the election of directors, which requires a plurality of the votes cast.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our Board of Directors will have the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional, or special rights as well as the qualifications, limitations, or restrictions of the preferred stock, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock. Our board of directors, without stockholder approval, will be able to issue convertible preferred stock with voting, conversion, or other rights that could adversely affect the voting power and other rights of the holders of common stock. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change of control or make removal of management more difficult. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock, and may adversely affect the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock. At present, we have no plans to issue any shares of preferred stock following this offering.

 

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We have designated a total of 350,000 shares as our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock which are non-voting and not subject to increase without the written consent of a majority of the holders of such series. The holders of each tranche of 175,000 shares are entitled to receive a per share dividend equal to 1% of our annual net revenue divided by 175,000, until converted or redeemed. Each share of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock may be converted, at the option of the holder, into 2.083 shares of common stock (subject to customary anti-dilution provisions), and as subject to mandatory conversions at the conversion rate in the event of a merger or sale transaction resulting in gross proceeds to us of at least $21,875,000. Each share has a liquidation preference based on its assumed conversion into shares of common stock. We have a right to redeem the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock up to the fifth anniversary of their respective closing dates (March 17, 2015 and January 21, 2016) at a price per share equal to $50.

 

Our board of directors will fix the designations, voting powers, rights, preferences and privileges of each series, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of the Preferred Stock of each series that we offer under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of Preferred Stock we are offering before the issuance of that series of Preferred Stock. This description will include:

 

  the title and stated value;
     
  the number of shares being offered;
     
  the liquidation preference per share;
     
  the purchase price per share;
     
  the dividend rate per share, dividend period and payment dates and method of calculation for dividends;
     
  whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;
     
  our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
     
  the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;
     
  the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;
     
  the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;
     
  any listing of the Preferred Stock on any securities exchange or market;
     
  whether the Preferred Stock will be convertible into Common Stock, and the conversion rate or conversion price, or how they will be calculated, and the exchange period;
     
  voting rights, if any, of the Preferred Stock;
     
  preemption rights, if any;

 

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  restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;
     
  a discussion of any material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the Preferred Stock;
     
  the relative ranking and preferences of the Preferred Stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;
     
  the limitations on issuances of any class or series of Preferred Stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of Preferred Stock being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and
     
  any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or restrictions of the Preferred Stock.

 

Upon issuance, the shares of Preferred Stock will be fully paid and non-assessable.

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law, our Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws

 

Delaware Law

 

We are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly traded Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A business combination includes mergers, asset sales or other transactions resulting in a financial benefit to the stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns (or within three years, did own) 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock, subject to certain exceptions. The statute could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our Company.

 

Board of Directors Vacancies

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors may be set only by resolution of the majority of the incumbent directors.

 

Stockholder Action; Special Meeting of Stockholders

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws provide that our stockholders may take action by written consent. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws further provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called by a majority of the board of directors, the Chief Executive Officer, or the Chairman of the board of directors.

 

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations

 

Our Amended and Restated Bylaws provide that stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders, must provide timely notice of their intent in writing. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to the secretary at our principal executive offices not later than the close of business on the 90th day nor earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event the date of the annual meeting is more than 30 days before or more than 60 days after such anniversary date, or if no annual meeting was held in the preceding year, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the 10th day following the day on which a public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made by us. These provisions may preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders.

 

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These provisions could discourage a potential acquirer from acquiring Lixte Biotechnology Holdings or otherwise attempting to obtain its control and increase the likelihood that its incumbent directors and officers will retain their positions.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare, Inc.

 

NASDAQ Capital Market

 

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “LIXT.”

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a prospectus supplement. We will also indicate in the prospectus supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

 

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

 

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee named in the prospectus supplement. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined in this prospectus have the meanings specified in the indenture.

 

General

 

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

 

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue under it. Debt securities issued under the indenture may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

  the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

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  the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;
     
  any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;
     
  the date or dates on which the principal on a particular series of debt securities is payable;
     
  the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
     
  the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the debt securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;
     
  the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;
     
  any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the debt securities of a particular series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
     
  the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;
     
  the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
     
  whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;
     
  the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;
     
  the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;
     
  the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and premium and interest on, the debt securities will be made;
     
  if payments of principal of, or premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

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  the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;
     
  any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;
     
  any addition to, deletion of or change in the events of default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
     
  any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
     
  any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;
     
  the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;
     
  any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and
     
  whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.

 

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Transfer and Exchange

 

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC” or “the Depositary”) or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Legal Ownership of Securities” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

 

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Certificated Debt Securities

 

You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.

 

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

 

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System

 

Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see the section of this prospectus entitled “Legal Ownership of Securities” for more information.

 

Covenants

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

 

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

 

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) that could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

 

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

 

 

we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than Lixte Biotechnology Holdings) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture;
     
  immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and
     
  certain other conditions are met.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us.

 

Events of Default

 

An “event of default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

  default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

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  default in the payment of principal of any debt security of that series at its maturity;
     
  default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture or any debt security (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Lixte Biotechnology Holdings and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;
     
  certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Lixte Biotechnology Holdings; or
     
  any other event of default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

 

We will provide the trustee written notice of any default or event of default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such default or event of default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such default or event of default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

 

The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense that might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

 

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

  that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

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  the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, and premium and any interest on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.

 

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a default or event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each holder of the securities of that series notice of a default or event of default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such default or event of default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any default or event of default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.

 

Modification and Waiver

 

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

  to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;
     
  to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;
     
  to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;
     
  to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;
     
  to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;
     
  to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;
     
  to comply with the applicable procedures of the Depositary;
     
  to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;
     
  to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;
     
  to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or
     
  to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

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We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modification or amendment. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment would:

 

  reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;
     
  reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;
     
  reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;
     
  reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;
     
  waive a default or event of default in the payment of the principal of, or premium or interest on, any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
     
  make the principal of, or premium or interest on, any debt security payable in a currency other than that stated in the debt security;
     
  make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of the holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, and premium and interest on, those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or
     
  waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security.

 

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all of the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or any interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

 

Defeasance of the Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

 

Legal Defeasance

 

The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of cash and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, cash and/or government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide cash in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

 

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This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

 

Defeasance of Certain Covenants

 

The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

  we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and
     
  any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a default or an event of default with respect to the debt securities of that series (a “covenant defeasance”).

 

The conditions include:

 

  depositing with the trustee cash and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, cash and/or government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide cash in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and
     
  delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.

 

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No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders

 

None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or stockholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

 

Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the debt securities, is governed by the laws of the State of New York.

 

The indenture provides that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

 

The indenture provides that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture further provides that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture further provides that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock or for the purchase of debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. If a series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent, we will so specify in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The following summary of the material terms of the warrants and warrant agreements is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the warrants and any warrant agreement applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrants and any warrant agreements that contain the terms of the warrants.

 

The material terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

 

  the number of shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon exercise;
     
  a summary of the terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of Preferred Stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase Preferred Stock as set forth in the certificate of designations for such series of Preferred Stock;

 

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  the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;
     
  the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, Preferred Stock or Common Stock will be separately transferable;
     
  the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
     
  the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
     
  the material U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to the warrants; and
     
  any additional material terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

 

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

 

  to vote, consent or received dividends;
     
  receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or
     
  exercise any rights as stockholders of Lixte Biotechnology Holdings.

 

Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of Preferred Stock or Common Stock at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void. A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holder of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase Common Stock or Preferred Stock are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying Common Stock or Preferred Stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the Common Stock or Preferred Stock, if any.

 

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

 

General

 

We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or warrants, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights. We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

 

  the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

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  the aggregate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

  the exercise price;

 

  the aggregate number of rights issued;

 

  whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;

 

  the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;

 

  the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;

 

  the conditions to the completion of the offering, if any;

 

  the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights, if any;

 

  whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment, if any;

 

  whether stockholders are entitled to oversubscription rights, if any;

 

  any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

  any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights, as applicable.

 

Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Rights Agent

 

The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate unit agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

 

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file each unit agreement as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

 

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

  the title of the series of units;
     
  identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;
     
  the price or prices at which the units will be issued;
     
  the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;
     
  the material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and
     
  any other material terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We may issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As discussed below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

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As a result, investors in book-entry securities will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.

 

Street Name Holders

 

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether or how the holders contact the indirect holders is the responsibility of the holders.

 

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

  the performance of third-party service providers;
     
  how it handles securities payments and notices;
     
  whether it imposes fees or charges;
     
  how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
     
  whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

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  how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
     
  if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under the section entitled “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated” in this prospectus. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

Special Considerations for Global Securities

 

The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

  an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations described below;
     
  an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as described above;
     
  an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;
     
  an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

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  the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;
     
  we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;
     
  the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
     
  financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

 

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any intermediary.

 

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be the responsibility of the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to learn how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

  if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;
     
  if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
     
  if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities offered by this prospectus from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

  at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;
     
  at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
     
  at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
     
  at negotiated prices.

 

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Each time that we sell securities offered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us.

 

Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.

 

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

 

If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

 

Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.

 

Any Common Stock issued by us under this prospectus will be listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, underwriters or other persons acting as agents may be authorized to solicit offers by institutions or other suitable purchasers to purchase the securities at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in the prospectus supplement. These purchasers may include, among others, commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions.

 

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We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

 

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

TroyGould PC, Los Angeles, California, has issued an opinion regarding certain legal matters relating to the issuance of the securities offered by this prospectus on behalf of Lixte Biotechnology Holdings, Inc. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of Lixte Biotechnology Holdings, Inc. as of December 31, 2019, and 2018 and for the years then ended, incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of Weinberg & Co., P.A., an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding us and other issuers that file electronically with the SEC. This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document. You may access the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part by visiting http://www.sec.gov.

 

We also maintain a website at www.lixte.com, through which you can access our SEC filings free of charge. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus. The reference to our website address does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on our website.

 

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

The rules of the SEC allow us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus information that we have filed with the SEC under the Commission File No. 000-51436. This means we can disclose important information to you without actually including the specific information in this prospectus by referring you to SEC filings that contain that information. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, provided that it will be automatically updated and superseded by information that we file later with the SEC. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below:

 

  Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on March 25, 2020; and

 

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  Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on May 11, 2020, August 10, 2020 and November 11, 2020, respectively;
     
  Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 17, 2020, August 18, 2020, November 27, 2020, December 2, 2020 and January 22, 2021,
     
  the description of the Common Stock incorporated by reference to our Registration Statement on Form 8-A that was filed with the SEC on November 17, 2020, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and
     
  all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, we are not incorporating by reference any documents, portions of documents, exhibits or other information that is deemed to have been furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC.

 

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statements so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

We will provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request of any such person, a copy of any or all of the documents that has been or may be incorporated by reference into this prospectus (excluding certain exhibits to the documents) at no cost. Any such request may be made in writing or by telephoning our Investor Relations department at the following address or telephone number:

 

248 Route 25A No. 2

East Setauket, NY 11733

Attention: Vice President Business Administration
Telephone: (631) 880-2907

 

You may also access these documents on our website, www.lixte.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in thi